Saturday, August 31, 2019

Limitations of Marketing Research Essay

Explain the limitations of marketing research used to contribute to the development of Nivea. No matter how small or large a market research project may be, any type of research performed poorly will not give relevant results. In fact, all research, no matter how well controlled, carries the potential to be wrong. There are many reasons why research may not give good results but a common problem is deciding whether the research is really measuring what it claims to be measuring. There are 3 types of limitations of market research. These are Cost effectiveness, reliability and validity of data collected. Reliability is chiefly concerned with making sure the method of data gathering leads to consistent results. For example; Nivea need to make sure that in their market research that they were asking the same questions asked of each person, was the sample big enough and reflective of the people who will use/buy the product would the same results be obtained from a different set of people. Reliability estimates the degree to which a product is measures in contrast to validity which involves the degree of accuracy. In research, Nivea will want to use measurement tools that are both reliable and valid. They will want to create questions that offer consistent responses when asked multiple times as this shows reliability. Validity asks whether the research measured what it intended to. Validity implies reliability: a valid measure must be reliable. But reliability does not necessarily imply validity: a reliable measure need not be valid. Validity is usually considered more important than reliability, because if an instrument does not accurately measure what it is supposed to, there is no reason to use it even if it measures reliably. Nivea needs to consider when carrying out their market research for a product is does the product measure what it claims to measure and is it accurate, this reduces the chances of the business making the wrong decision. If they so happen to make the wrong decision this will affect one of its marketing objectives which is to retain customers and gain new ones, if the validity of their data is not correct then they will not reach this marketing objectives as customers opinions of the company will differ. Costs are also an important consideration in market research, Nivea need to consider whether or not the product they’re promoting is cost effective. Their market research has to weigh up the cost of undertaking the research against the potential benefits that may result. You could spend a lot of time and effort in trying to solve a problem through market research, only to find that the solution may not be worth implementing. Also, marketing is one of the few areas of a budget that can be reigned in without hurting Nivea too much as they are a very successful business however, one of their marketing plans is to continue producing successful skin products and boost sales yearly. To do this they have a few cost-effective ways that a company can market its products. Search Engine Optimization- Nivea’s customers are no longer waiting for direct mail pieces to arrive before ordering–they are finding products when they want them through Internet searches. In fact, almost 90% of new visitors to a web site originate from major search engines. And clearly, a top ranking on Google can translate into hundreds or thousands of visitors– and orders–a month. As web pages proliferate, increasingly more aggressive search engine optimization strategies are needed to remain visible to Nivea’s customers. Permission-based Email Marketing. Permission is the difference between legitimate email marketing and spam, turning email marketing into a highly cost effective marketing strategy. The idea is simple and time tested: Nivea deliver highly relevant, timely, and personalized email messages to their customers and prospects at a fraction of the cost of direct mail to avoid any cost limitations. 3. Public Relations- News releases, white papers, case studies, awards, and sponsorships of educational events are just a few of the relatively inexpensive ways Nivea keep their brand name in front of other competitors. Although these methods have succeeded so far for them in the near future they will have to alter their methods as well as their approach to the types of market research they decide to carry out, otherwise poor market research will increase the chances of Nivea making a wrong decision. D2) Make and justify three recommendations for improving the validity (the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure) of the marketing research used to contribute to the development of your chosen organisation’s marketing plans. In this assignment I will be explaining how Nivea uses marketing research for its marketing planning by applying a Marketing Planning Process Model, a SWOT analysis on Nivea – giving at least 3 factors for each box) and their SMART objectives (stating what their business objectives are/might be) Marketing planning is concerned with establishing objectives and goals, allocating resources to meet these and setting out a clear plan of action. It also involves setting out ways of evaluating performance against marketing targets. Typically, the marketing planning process involves: a PESTLE audit, a SWOT analysis, setting SMART objectives, determining strategy and tactics, implementing strategy and tactics and evaluating effectiveness of marketing activity. A Marketing planning process model involves a PESTLE and SWOT As part of the marketing planning process, Nivea has to analyse its external environment. One useful way of analysing the external environment is by grouping external forces into six areas using a PESTLE analysis. PESTLE stands for political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental influences. Political factors that affect a business are usually beyond the control of the organisation. However, the business needs to anticipate changes and identify the action it needs to take to either make the most of an opportunity or mitigate a threat. For example, a political factor that Nivea need to consider is that during a recession, any banks or financial services providers would have to consider the likely government scrutiny of any of their business decisions. Economic factors can affect the performance of a business. These relate to he national – or international economy. A economic factor that can affect Nivea are the periods of prosperity that they go through. This can happen in three ways for example’ when high employment and income drives demand within the organisation. It can also happen in the form of recession when demand falls, leading to lower income and employment within their organisation. Furthermore, in the form of recovery, when demand, income and employment gradually rise within the business. Social factors relate to the values and beliefs of society. This includes the population’s demographics (for example, size, gender, ethnicity, income, education, occupation). These social factors provide useful information for Nivea as it allows them to target their services at broad segments of the population, such as newspapers and magazines. Technological developments can affect businesses in a range of ways. For example, the development of e-commerce benefited business such Amazon. co. uk. Due to the rise in e-commerce Nivea had to produce a e-commerce website which eventually took business away from traditional shops.. Legal developments affect businesses in a range of ways. For example, if there was a change to the Data Protection Act it would affect Nivea and all other businesses that hold customer data. For example If a change in the act occurred then Nivea may not be able to expressly agree to the use of personal data for advertising or marketing purposes any more. Environmental factors can relate to the social, political and legal aspects affecting a business. For example, if Nivea decide to package their cream products in recyclable packaging. This may prove to be popular with consumers if there is a growing level of concern over waste. Similarly, the government may put pressure on businesses to increase the amount of recycling. SWOT analysis A useful approach to examining the relationship between a business and its marketing environment is by conducting a SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for: †¢ Strengths †¢ Weaknesses †¢ Opportunities and Threats. Strengths and weaknesses are internal to the business and can include issues such as the buildings, quality of the staff, IT systems and so on. The external element looks at the opportunities and threats present in the environment in which the organisation operates. Carrying out a SWOT analysis requires research into an organisation’s current and future position. The idea is to match an organisation’s strengths and weaknesses with the external forces (opportunities and threats). SWOT analysis draws together all the evidence from the various analytical techniques used. It is a way of producing a summary, which then provides the basis for developing marketing objectives or aims and ultimately strategies or plans. Strengths refer to the internal features of Nivea, which provide a competitive advantage. An example could be a highly efficient IT system which they use to design their products. The company also has a sound financial base, so it had the resources to put together a strong marketing campaign. Also, Nivea has staff with relevant skills – researchers with the scientific skills to develop products that men want and marketing staff with the skills to help promote these products effectively. Weaknesses are internal aspects of the organisation, which may not stand comparison with competition or are not performing effectively. An example might be major concerns and questions that Nivea have when launching a product For example; Was the product range still relevant for the target audience? Did it have the right sales and distribution outlets? Was its market research up-to-date? Opportunities focus on events and developments external to an organisation. This might include new territories for a product or service. Opportunities that Nivea will want to undertake is to open a new segment of a market. Also, NIVEA FOR MEN had seen an increase in the sales of male skincare products and it wants a greater share of this market, Nivea might might consider this. Furthermore, the company wants to take advantage of changing social attitudes such as men becoming more open, or certainly less resistant, to facial skincare products. Threats are developments external to the organisations, which could damage overall performance. These threats can originate from governmental policy, such as an increase in corporation tax or new laws. Threats to Nivea are consumers who are becoming more knowledgeable and price conscious. They often expect sales promotions such as discounts and offers. Also, the risk of competitors entering the market.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Health Services Organization Essay

Identify and evaluate at least three forces that have affected the development of the health care system in the U.S. The U.S. healthcare system has continually evolved due to the success of innovative fore-thought. These innovations have been both strategic and tactical, influenced by all segments of the health care industry. There are many key strategic and tactical innovations, I will elaborate on three forces I feel affect the development of the healthcare system in the U.S.; they are: Increasing cost of healthcare, affect of economics on the healthcare system, and labor force trends in the U.S. as it relate to healthcare. * The steadily increasing cost of healthcare in the U.S. 1. The Unites States is known as the land of plenty, but if you are a native of this great nation you might feel quite differently about that statement. Being poor here has to be much like being poor anywhere else in the world, poor is poor; what might be different is opportunity. The opportunity that we are going to discuss is that of the pursuit of receiving the best healthcare regardless of race, creed, national origi n, or station in life (being with or without money). The cost of health care in the U.S. neared 2.6 trillion dollars in 2010, this is a staggering amount of money; but what make it more astonishing is that this amount is ten times higher than the 1980’s sum of 256 billion dollars that was generated by health care system (population bulletin, 2008). The rate of funds generated by health care has slowed down in recent years, but still is expected to grow faster than the national income. Our country need to address this growing burden and not just let politician say it’s a major policy priority, really make it a priority for the overall good of our nation. Furthermore, the United States has been in a recession for most of the past decade, resulting in a high rate of unemployment and lower incomes for many Americans. These conditions have put even more attention on health spending due to its affordability. Since 2002, employer- sponsored health care coverage for employee and family premiums increased by 97%, making the pursuit of health care a burden on the workers and employers. Medicare covers disabled people as well as the elderly; while Medicaid provides medical coverage for low-income families. Medicare enrollment has grown tremendously over the years due to the aging baby boomers and Medicaid due to the recession. This has added considerably to government spending, straining both federal and state budgets. Health spending accounted for 17.9% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2010 (kaiserEDU.com, Health Policy from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Explained). * Economic affect healthcare. 2. Economics and health care is very simple to explain, especially by someone who has seen first-hand families being mentally tormented, because they could not afford dental care for their children, the check-up not covered by the company’s insurance to enable your child to be eligible to play football, or not being able to afford the prescription medication. There are many reasons families go without medical care, and far too many times it’s just because the individual is living just above the poverty line; which make them ineligible for assistance. I personally feel the affect economics have on healthcare or the lack there of, can never be explained any clearer; unless you are experiencing it yourself. * Labor force trends in the U.S. 3. In the 1960’s the U.S. labor force grow at the rate of 1.7 percent annually and continue to grow into the 70’s as the baby boomer (those born between 1946-1964 generation continued to reach adulthood and enter the workforce. During this same period women began to enter the workforce as never seen before causing the labor force to grow at a rate of 2.6 percent annually. One might not see this as a health issue, but with women joining the workforce men began to feel the pressure, causing health complication. Women on the other hand who at one time lived the life of a care free house wife, but now working in corporate America; has started to feel stress now heart attacks are the number one killer of the American female species. I know there was nothing glamorous about being a slave, but slaves lived with just about no illnesses or life threatening diseases, know blacks have the highest numbers when it comes to diabetes, HIV, and high blood pressure than any other ethnic group (but we are free), freedom should make us take life more serious and take care of ourselves as well as our children. During the 1980’s and 90’s fewer people entered the workforce, therefore the labor force growth slowed down and ranged from 1.6 to 1.1 percent. Even though we had covered on set of baby boomers we were about to see another set reach adulthood and struggle for a place in the workplace (U.S. labor force trends), in-turn means no health insurance because they are no longer their parents dependent. Healthcare is becoming a great necessity due to infectious diseases, the year of the flower children seem to have spread more than just flowers. Health Insurance Companies are not seeing their usual capital gain at this point, consequently a change in the way benefits are paid across overall is about to change. At one time people thought as long as they paid their insurance premiums the benefits would be there when or if it was needed (we learned to read the fine print). * Speculate whether or not these forces will continue to affect the health care system in the U.S. over the next decade. (Include a force that was not mentioned that you believe will impact the health care system of the nation. Unfortunately we show no immediate signs that the cost of healthcare will decline in the Unites States anytime soon. With all the bickering about healthcare, there’s one fact everyone seems to agree on: American medicine cost too much, especially considering what we’re getting for the money. As expert look toward the future, they don’t see the cost dropping dramatically anytime soon. Curbing the rise in healthcare cost depend on our ability to gain control of the many forces causing them to climb, technology has helped other industries lower costs by eliminating waste and increasing efficiencies, but it’s done the opposite in healthcare (Lisa Zamosky, Los Angeles Times, September 12, 2012. Without any dispute I’m sure we can all agree the economy will always affect healthcare and the people who need it, which will always be everyone. We all hope the economy will make a rapid recovery, but that’s just not how things work; just as it took decades of bad decisions to get us where we are today it’s going to take time for our nation to make a meaningful recovery. Over the next 50 years, the labor force is projected to grow even more slowly (at about 0.6 percent per year) as baby boomers retire. What will this mean as far as health care is concern; well as we grow older our need for healthcare on a regular base becomes more essential than it was when we were in our prime (population bulletin). Baby boomers, reaching senior living status promotes a different type of demand on the medical system; a tremendous demand for those employed by senior living facilities, as well as those providing home health care. * Evaluate the importance of technology in the health care system. Technology is the driving force behind the universe, if you are not a believer just think about the devices you use to get through your day; hence technology. Medical technology is constantly presenting us with new devices that make our lives more fulfilling, we have laser surgery, hip replacement, artificial limb to replace worn out or damaged ones, cataract surgery that have advanced so rapidly it’s amazing, can you believe a person can have heart surgery and be walking around the next day? This is all because of technology, it’s amazing. This is something we cannot put a price on, what is being learned and the advances being made due to research technology is saving lives as well as making lives better each and every day. References: KaiserEDU.com, Health Policy, from the Henry J. Kaiser family foundation, Explained, Cost and Spending. http://www.kaiseredu.org/en/Top ics/Costs-and-Spending Population Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 2, June 2008, U.S. Labor Forces Trends By: Marlene A. Lee and Mark Mather (Marlene A. Lee is a senior research associate and editor of the Population Bulletin at the Population Reference Bureau. She holds degrees in public policy analysis and development sociology/demography from the University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill and Cornell University. Mark Mather is associate vice president of Domestic Programs at the Population Reference Bureau, where he coordinates several projects that communicate population research to advocacy groups, educators, the media, and the public. He holds a doctorate and a master’s degree in sociology/demography from the University of Maryland. http://www.prb.org

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Ancient Homosexuality Essay Example for Free

Ancient Homosexuality Essay The modern self is primarily built up of one’s history, body, religion, politics and entertainment – a Freudian composition of what identity is. And all of these things, the very factors that make the modern self the way it is, roots from the ancients. Cicero once thought that without the knowledge of the past, once shall remain a child, hence, Simon Goldhill’s Love, Sex and Tragedy: How the Ancient World Shapes Our Lives. With Cicero’s principle in mind, Goldhill wishes his readers to have a full understanding of who they are and how they came to be the way they are. Among the very controversial societal issues that Goldhill discussed pertained to homosexuality. Sexuality, in the time of the Greco-Romans, meant a love-affair with the phallus. They paraded it in the theatres, processions, public road, and even public memorials. The phallus was part of the classical man’s body, sexuality and sensuality – which, by the way, not only applies to men, but for females as well. The Greco-Romans had a profound relationship with sexual organs and acts, which, the modern man – apparently influenced by the rules of Christianity, might find obscene. A part of Simon Goldhill’s discussions on sexuality is the root of homosexuality. The Greeks had a particular fondness over a scenario where a bearded male desires a beardless lad. In today’s terms, this is the so-called pedophilia, as practiced through the inter-crural activity. This involves the placing of one’s penis between the partner’s thighs, may it be front or rear, followed by thrusting to attain sexual pleasure. Greeks from the seventh century, reinforced pederasty among men from the upper-class society, especially in their twenties, to acquire a young boy approximately aged 12 to love and nurture until he grows to marry at age 30, and later take a boy of his own. Practicing pederasty reinforced late marriage for these males, in the hopes of reducing the possibility of overpopulation, as well as to improve the education – initiation and instruction, of the ancient Greek youth. On Greek vases, one can find a picture of the bearded man – erastes, and the beardless youth – eromenos, as the erastes touches the eromenos’s genitals. The erastes takes the intiative as the eromenos remains passive. But, the ancient Greeks prohibited the relationship between a bearded man with yet another bearded man, and it was shameful that a bearded man becomes the passive one – or pathikos. The pedagogical pederasty is an illustration of a father-son relationship, where the erastes acts as a substitute father to help the young lad on his way to manhood, maturity, and to orient him to become a productive part of the society. The erastes demonstrates this affection by little presents ranging from a bottle of oil to money. The relationship was beneficial in both parties – the erastes provides education, protection, love and a role model for the eromenos – who offers beauty and admiration in turn. In modern theory, this is called sexual reciprocity. Gay does not necessarily mean one is less man or woman than a heterosexual. The ancient Greeks have never defined it in that way. Pedagogical pederasty and the sexual reciprocity that follows it are acts that only show the so-called love – in whichever form you wish to see it, may it be erotic or platonic. However, if we do know the origins of homosexuality, how does it actually affect us as individuals? We do obtain the full understanding of our identities in terms of our sexuality, and the understanding of others’ sexuality. This book simply implies the basic lesson of respect. Ancient Homosexuality. (2017, Mar 09).

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Micro Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Micro - Term Paper Example Yet, in the economic cycle consumer is inevitable to business’s working and survival. As any produced good or service basically relies on consumer’s demand, who consumes it eventually. Thus, consumer’s demand, choice, preferences and decision making are significant aspects of micro economic system as they shed light on how any consumer chooses to exert his influence on any economic activity. Similarly, consumer is faced with the option of choosing from among the diverse products to meet his needs in most efficient way and likewise, utilizing his asset/cash in a prudent manner. Now how a consumer chooses and spends his earning to invest in the capital of the company is a comprehensive and diligent process, which mainly focuses on how two parties (business owner and consumer) involved take business and spending decisions. The main factors which impact the purchase inclination and decision of a consumer are price of the good or services, quality, reliability, durability and feasibility. However, there are many other factors as well, which influence the preferences of the consumer as well like fashion, marketing, government policies, and social or religious preferences. Yet, the core idea to learn about marketing strategy relies in the understanding of consumer decision making (when and how he decides to pay for goods or services). The term which describes how a consumer makes his decision t earn maximum advantage from the purchase any god or services is known as utility. This utility enables the consumer to spend more than usual on the goods/services, which benefit him in more than usual manner. However, not all the consumers can benefit any product/services in a similar way. Thus, diverse level of utility are associated with different types of consumers and this diverse nature of utility creates distinctiveness in the demand of goods/services too. However, this consumer inclination or decision making is received in the form of raw

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Interwar Period Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interwar Period - Dissertation Example The women of Russia were beginning to ask for equality, they wanted the government to appreciate them, and by 1921 women in Russia were once again demanding the government provide them with more bread, as times continued to be rough during the transitional period. However, regardless of whether all of the ideas regarding women were fully realized, the ideas themselves still proved to be radical and influential. Throughout 1917 to 1920, Lenin proclaimed that he sought to provide women with the equality they deserved from the efforts they made during the October revolution. He made his opinion known that, through socialism, the classes would become equal and, as a result, the sexes would as well. Although there were small steps made in creating the equality of women that he spoke about, there were large leaps made in ideology that presented a view of gender equality that remains revolutionary for the time and a model for women’s rights movements.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Journalism and Communication - Plagiarism Essay

Journalism and Communication - Plagiarism - Essay Example More often than not students merely paraphrase the existing works of other authors in a bid to evade plagiarism without proper citation of the original sources of information. It is imperative to acknowledge and cite the original sources that were used to access the initial information if students need to avoid plagiarizing. In general terms, plagiarism entails the replication of someone’s ideas without giving credit, stealing of ideas, failure to put quotation marks and proper reference to a quoted phrase, provision of inappropriate information regarding the sources of the quoted information as well as alteration of the wordings in a sentence structure without giving credit to the original author (Alfrey, 2012). Why Students Plagiarize Students plagiarize their work due to various conflicting reasons. Some students plagiarize their work intentionally while others plagiarize unintentionally. Some of the common reasons for plagiarism are: unexpected deadline in class work, over whelming assignments, the confusion in research and plagiarism boundaries, and lack of explicit ideas and training on how to avoid plagiarism (Purdue University, 2007) Intentional v. Unintentional Plagiarism From the accessible facts, it is clear that, some students and scholars plagiarize their work deliberately. ... Moreover, some students have difficulty in the interpretation and analysis of the available online data. This category of students copy paste complex information from the internet without proper synthesis of ideas or paying attention to the authors. Some students also believe that, the quality of their original work is low compared what is available in the internet. This leads to direct copying and hence plagiarism. Most contemporary scholars lack the most effective way of developing their own ideas and style, limiting them to direct utilization of the existing written information. The pressure from the lecturers, peers, families’ course, job requirements and scholarship admission are and failure to meet strict deadlines are acknowledged as the main factors that motivate students to engage in intentional plagiarism. Internal and external pressures portray education as the only ladder to success rather than for a self valuation process. Due to this, students tend to embark on t he end result of education rather than on valuing the skills and competencies in training and education. Many students fail to understand the significance of the acquired research and writing skills in their future career development. Intentional plagiarism is necessitated by peer influence. Poor assignment planning coupled with poor time management skills are also common prerequisites for intentional plagiarism amongst college students, especially since many students are always less aware of the time required in completing a research paper. Naive students are sometimes compelled to use the other scholars’ work without due authority. In most cases, these mistakes occur as a result

Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 16

Case Study - Essay Example The punishment on the four boys has a beneficial impact on the greater society since it teaches on the importance of morals such as respect for one’s property. Through the punishment of the boys, the need to have a well-functioning society devoid of disregard to other people’s property is supported. I strongly feel that the punishment on the boys is morally justified, though the sentencing of the boys may be extremely unreasonable. The punishment is moral since the conduct of the boys cannot be tolerated at any cost. Any wrong action must be followed by a tough consequence. This is the only way that will allow for a complete weakening of any wrong systems that might be thriving in the society. As utilitarianism goes, punishment contributes to a greater good in the society (Williams & Arrigo 180-181). Chang, Juju., Brown, Ely & Effron, Lauren. The Controversial Felony Murder Case of The Elkhart 4: Should Teens Be Sentenced to 50 Years in Prison? 25 Jul. 2014. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Intergrated public health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Intergrated public health - Essay Example althy life expectancy, life expectancy at birth for males and females, as well as inequality in the life expectancy during birth in both females and males. This data is essential to public health workers since it offers the real figure of the population in Newham. Data collected helps public health workers to budget on how to attend to the community. Local authorities Marmot Indicators were developed in order to offer information that supports monitoring the strategic direction, which reduces health inequalities. The Health Equity Institute in collaboration with the England’s Public Health launched marmot Indicators 2014 (Pfeffer, 2010, p. 78) They are the social health determinants, social inequality and health outcomes, which broadly correspond to a number of policy recommendations that are proposed in Healthy Lives in any Fair Society. Data offered to public health workers greatly benefits public health workers since it covers households that do not reach a minimum income standard. Additionally, it tackles work related illness in Newham, fuel poverty for the high cost of fuel in households, unemployment levels, mature individuals that are not employed, trained or educated as well as percentage of individuals that use outdoor locations for health reasons and exercises (Meerabeau & Wright, 2011, p.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Organization advertisment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organization advertisment - Assignment Example There are several services offered at the center that you will find beneficial. There are plenty of philanthropic activities happening at the center with events such as clothing exchange and free Teen Night among others all happening in Brattain House. Besides, the center offers training to parents on how best to improve their parenting skills especially with the teenage children. There are plenty of captivating programs at the center that are aimed at improving the social welfare of the society. With the realization of the importance of sharing, the organization arranges events such as Little Yoga and Teen Night among several others that enable parents to meet and interact as they assist each other. The impacts of such social connectivity and events are immense. Amazingly, other services that one will find intriguing include the orientation program in which preschoolers are absorbed and rehearsed for their anticipated school days making them establish strong academic foundations that have proved to have positive impacts in their lives. At the Family Resource Centre, such donations are highly valued. Any contribution will be highly appreciated. There are a number of reasons why Family Resource Centre requires and deserves your

Friday, August 23, 2019

Multicultural Sexualities in American History Essay

Multicultural Sexualities in American History - Essay Example The essay "Multicultural Sexualities in American History" paper digs to explore the discrepancies and similarities among the Native American society and the European culture in the American history, as well as, highlighting the most appealing aspects of sexuality that have been adopted in today’s worldviews in addressing gender issues. The colonialism aspect that was practiced by the western cultural society was an effective tool that was used to erase the traditional non-binary roles of sexuality systems. The body is the main object that was observed to the root of sexual practices and gender identity depending on the physical features that opposite sex had. The two societies appreciated that there is a supernatural being that is the giver of life to these bodies. Sexual practices and desires were satisfied through these objects, as well as, giving birth to new generations. Both the Native Americans and the European societies respected the body since it was the object that determined sexuality and gender of people, as well as ethnicity. The body among these two worldviews was viewed as the means or the channel to self-identity. Moreover, different bodies formed hierarchical constructions that were connected with sexual roles in the society. Death was a concern among the two societies that dead bodies were respected. Sexuality entailed a social construction since its meaning took shape via a complex interplay of various cultural experiences, personal positions on individual’s identity and social sanctions.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Bean Trees Essay Example for Free

The Bean Trees Essay In the book, The Bean Trees, Taylor is the central character and one whose outlook on life, sense of humor and intellectual make up, serve as the motivation behind the central themes in the book. Within the book, Taylor has three goals in life: to graduate high school without getting pregnant, to get as far away from Pittman as possible and to change her name. She seeks a whole new identity out in the West and has a â€Å"can-do† attitude in the face of opposition and the experience of witnessing a great deal of pain, oppression and the darker side of people, yet she still continues to be an interesting and uplifting character within The Bean Trees. Taylor has a sympathetic side to her when she meets Turtle and Esperenza. There are few individuals who, when faced with raising another person’s child through the unexpected way in which Turtle was left with Taylor, would still decide to give raise that child as their own. Most would have felt sympathetic fore the child but would not have spent an entire lifetime raising the child. But that is what a young and unmarried Taylor decided to do. Also, when Taylor realizes that this individual is not a baby but rather an undersized and malnourished victim of sexual abuse, Taylor does not let the severity of her Turtle’s situation dissuade her from continuing to raise the child as her own while facing an almost certain life of abject poverty and hopelessness. This abuse that is experienced by Turtle does not quell Taylor’s lust for live and her belief in the goodness of people. She is not naive about the dark side of people but chooses rather to hold firm to the friendships that she has formed with other women. In this way, she serves as an archetypal hero in the fact that she leaves her home and family, descends into poverty and hopelessness, only to reemerge in order to accomplish some good for the people around her; specifically, her new daughter Turtle and her friends from Guatemala, Esperanza and Estevan. She also serves as a unique and independent character in the fact that her happiness and her success does not rely upon the actions or assistance of men. The men that she does befriend, serve as a strictly platonic relationship and are not central to the intellectual make up of Taylor. Taylor learns to grow up fast as she is now a mother with a troubled and young child. What complicated and threatens her upbeat and optimistic look on life is when she becomes aware of the plight of immigrants and a system, in her mind, which has left them behind. This comes with the befriending of Esperanza once Taylor decides that the only job left to take is working at Mattie’s tire barn. She cares for her child with the same tender heart that she cares for the plight of Estevan and Esperanza. Estevan’s outlook on life seems to shape Taylor’s as well. â€Å"Estevan explains that in hell people do not help one another, but in heaven they do.† Taylor takes to heart the troubles of others. In the end, receives as much from her friends as she gave. Even though Taylor is portrayed as an independent woman and a different type of heroine, she still requires the support that she gets from these people. In this way, her outlook on life is one that cannot be reco nciled without good people surrounding her. Taylor’s outlook on life comes from social consciousness through the treatment of immigrants by the government and the injustice that, in her mind, shapes her opinion about social issues as it has the same effect on Kingsolver, the author of The Bean Trees. But in the end, her humor and optimistic outlook on life cannot help but be increased through her newfound sense of motherhood. â€Å"It didn’t seem to matter to Turtle, she was happy where she was. . . . She watched the dark highway and entertained me with her vegetable-soup song, except that now there were people mixed in with the beans and potatoes: Dwayne Ray, Mattie, Esperanza, Lou Ann and all the rest. And me. I was the main ingredient.† It has become established that Turtle finally defines Taylor as being her true mother and the woman that has cared enough to take care of her when it was not convenient to do so. And lastly, the fact that Taylor now defines herself as being the main ingredient in the happiness and well being of Turtle, her only daughter is what keeps Taylor optimistic and upbeat in the fact of contributing factors that would cause the weaker individual to give in and become embittered by those experiences. The story ends with the reader being convinced that Taylor and Turtle will live a full and enjoyable life, despite the probability that there will be more troubles to come. WORKS CITED Kingsolver, Barbara. The Bean Trees. New York: Harper Collins, 1988.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Tools Of A Writer Essay Example for Free

The Tools Of A Writer Essay Compare the importance of the tools of a writer (description, narration, and example) to those of a carpenter. The textbook is Wordsmith a guide to college writing by Pamela Arlov 3rd edition. He either imagines the plans in his head, and make a sketch of the end he sees; it make time to complete this arduous task but he devotes time and energy into arriving at the right design for the work/furniture he plans. Until he finds the appropriate connection and decides the correct material to combine, he never starts. Once he is finished on the vision he sees, the idea to portray through the design and the necessities for the work, he runs straight to his workbench and work begins. He is a carpenter ready to ‘fashion’ an edifice from mere wood from the Amazon forest; poised to bring the vision to sight and the dream to reality. He cuts into strands and planks, cleans the inconsistent edge into defines shapes. He smoothens the surface of the wood with the smoothing machine, and clears the plank of dirt and unreasonable edges. He chisels in and out until the right bend is achieved and every part is well nit to the other. Then he sprays the finished work with the paint of ‘gold’ and the aroma of a ‘Paris’ perfume for the dream is here and the reality now a neighbor; that’s the way of the excellent carpenter. In similar fashion, the writer ruminates over the idea he is building, over the issue to espouse and the story to tell. In his mind, he does have a target: a topic to discuss. At his disposals are tools to work with: description, narration and example. He begins to espouse his idea with the definition, and process the data into useful information. In his description, he employs the use of words and not woods to make a statement or tell his story. He ‘saws’ out the right own that are compatible with his lines, leaving out irrelevance that may mar his work. To express his mind, he must describe and/or narrate. His words are constructed into sentences and meaningful paragraphs. His thoughts are clarified in this process, as he fashions out each unit for a definite purpose. He knits everything together with strong coherence and sentence unity. He ‘chisels’ the irrelevances out of each unit. He relies to a reasonable extent on the works and experiences of the past just as the carpenter derives strength from the victory of former days. With examples, he expands the model he proposes until all parts converge into an edifice. His narration appears like a divergence but in essence, all units consummate on the idea: a beautiful castle to behold made of wooden words.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing

Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing INTRODUCTION Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing are applicable for any nurse, from beginner to expert. They are often considered as the vital part of nursing. This assignment will discover ethical and legal implication of the nurse who disguises the information of the lethal ill patient at the request of his family. The family does not want the nurse to notify the patient about the lethal nature of his disease. The family also desires that the nurse should not tell the patient about the medications prescribed to him. Johnstone (2011, p 21) says that nursing professional is very uncertain. The nurse is always in dilemma whether she should cooperate with the family or not. Now the questions that arises here is that if the nurse does not disclose the truth to the patient then what would be the legal implications. Moreover, the nurse is uncertain whether she would go after the wishes of the family or not. In the following discussion, I will look at the ethical principles and legal implications of hiding information from the patient and administering morphine without his information or approval. PALLIATIVE CARE According to WHO, palliative care is defined as an approach that helps in improving the quality of life of the patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening disease. Patients need a palliative care to support their long and slow treatment procedure Tang, (2006, p. 360). It is focused on providing comfort and relief from the pain and the other distressing symptoms of a serious illness. It integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care. It offers a support system that helps patients to be lively as much as possible until death. It also provides a firm support to the family to cope up with the patient illness and also includes bereavement support for the family. Palliative care uses a team approach to handle the needs of the patients and their families. It is a team based effort of care giving and it is also responsible for initiating the concept of dedicated palliative care development team. The team includes doctor, nurse, massage therapists, nutritionists and pharmacists. A number of medical professionals from different fields of medical sciences are constantly working on developing and designing new measures to provide the best palliative care to the patients who are suffering from serious illness. All the principles of the palliative care must be applied from the time of diagnosis. Palliative care is often associated with terminal diseases like Cancer and AIDS but now the concept has been changed. There are various palliative regimes which are applicable for other diseases, such as cardiac or renal disease, so as to help the patient to cope with the suffering (Johnson et al. 2011). Sometimes, a term ‘Long term care’ is used to describe the palliative care. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES (Hodkinson 2008) state that â€Å"The therapeutic nature of this nurse–patient relationship is a central concept in nursing. The most important issues related to this bond are disclosure of truth, kindness and communication.† The patients who are suffering from terminal illness generally prefer to hear the truth but they wish it to listen to it in a receptive way (Maria, Ann Anna 2011). Autonomy The main principle of autonomy is that the patient should have adequate information about his condition so as to make a significant choice of treatment (Moulton King 2010). The nurse should properly converse with the patient and make sure that the patient is well aware of all available treatment options (Johnstone 2011). (Collis 2006) suggested that before disclosing the information to family members it is must to seek the patient’s consent. It expresses the respect for their autonomy. The nurse should consider patient’s autonomy before administering morphine. (Starzomski 2009) noted, â€Å"Patients and families from diverse communities have different beliefs about autonomy and may not envision disclosure of information in the same way as their health care providers. In these cases this is an area that needs to be carefully explored with patients to ensure their wishes are respected and they are included in the information process in the way that they wish to be.† In this scenario nurse should communicate with the family members in order to convince and find out their preferred way to disclose the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Beneficence- The principal of beneficence as a ‘do good’ describes applications of interventions that are carried out by nurse and physician for the benefit of patient .It also include the protection of right of health service consumer (Staunton Chiarella 2008). Health professional should treat the person ‘autonomously’ and prevent him/her from harm and care provider should also aware of legal implication of action taken(Ulysse, Balicas Yiquing 2011). Telling truth is not harmful for patient it will cause the peaceful death(OSullivan 2009). The health professional should motivate the family introducing them the benefit of therapeutic discloser and harmful effects of concealing information e.g. administer medication without consent. Justice -Justice described as treat everyone ‘equally and fairly’. It is a primary phenomena in resolving ethical dilemmas .It required to be supplemented by providing good care to health service user (Botes 2000).In order to apply justice health professionals provide care evenly to all the patients in hospital not patient and family. Non – maleficience This principle is based on the phenomena of ‘does no harm’ for example in health care when privacy hard to maintain for research or study purpose then health professional ensure that they do not disclose the patient’s personal details .This principal helps in prevent the occurrence and possibilities of harm. Nurse should access the risk of interventions that she /he is doing.(Ford Reutter 1990) .It also refrain the nurse from the intentional commission of a wrongful act.(Carlson et al. 2010) In many communities for instance Muslim and Indian cultures diseases are perceived as a family matter. Decision making is also â€Å"family centered† so withholding truth is not rare practice. Therefore beneficence and non-malfeasance play vital role in their moral values as compare to patient right to consent in western countries (Pentheny et al ,2011). It is also encouraged that in case of a dilemma a professional should seek help from their regulatory body or councils which can guide them towards a legally and ethically rightful path Hui, (2010, p.76). LEGAL AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS Ethics and legal implications are very closely related with each other. Ethics deal with the standards of conduct and ethical judgement whereas legal issues deal with nursing practise which includes licensing, nurse practice acts and standards of care (Chaloner 2007). According to Criminal Code (Palliative Care) Amendment Bill 2003, â€Å"Section 282A does not address consent. The administration of medical treatment including palliative care is already governed by a legal regime. If a person has capacity to decide their medical care the patient will consent to their medical treatment. Unauthorised administration of medical treatment would be assault†. AMA Queensland emphasize that health professionals should respect the ‘autonomy’ terminally ill patients in order to refusal and acceptance of their medical treatments. Ethical and legal implications in palliative care are very significant because it is an end stage treatment where majority of patient are moving towards an impending death. It is a legal right of every Australian citizen to have complete and correct information about their medical situation. Because of this entitlement professionals delivering palliative care and family members of the patient involves in legal and ethical dilemma. Where they are not sure which course of action would be appropriate in both ethical as well as legal manner. Due to these legal issues and emotional disturbances families of the patient and patient itself undergo a lot of stress and psychological trauma. It is also agreed by many experts of palliative care that increased stress would also impact the ability of the patient to cope with the trauma Oonagh (2009, p.123). In this case study patient is facing an impending death from cancer and terminal diagnosis of cancer which will brings her life to the end. This result in deteriorating in her physical health and she may ask question about her situation and prognosis of the disease. With an adult patient it is relatively important to understand the concept of death and disease and they can take a realistic approach towards it by spending their remaining time in a productive manner saying good bye to dear ones and taking care of all formalities before meeting a demises. (ACMA 2011). It is very complicated to reveal the information opposite to relative’s desires (Cavanna et al ,2009) In this scenario, the wishes of the family to hide information from the patient is not unusual.Ethically it looks wrong for a health care practitioner to lie to the patients regarding her medical situation and not inform her about her forthcoming death. There might be things which she wants to do before dying if she would have been informed. There is also legal implication with the fact that a patient is being treated without her consent and it is also violation of the law which gives a patient right to refusal for treatment on her body. For example many patients want to sign DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) forms to ensure that no attempts should be made to revive them if they are close to death. In this case study patient is being denied of this right as well Hanson (2002). If by family here it is implied that her legal guardian wishes to keep this information hidden from the patient, then according to Giacalone (2007, p.368) the nurse is not legally bound to honour their desires to do so would run counter to the law etc. Prima Facie it is a clear case of violation of constitutional rights of a patient if nursing professional does not inform the patient about her medical condition and learn her desire and judgment in designing and developing her future treatment and palliative care plan. According to Australian constitutional law the patient have the first right on information regarding his medical condition and it is on his discretion that with whom this information should be shared. If a patient expressively states that he doesn’t wish to share his medical information with his family then it is legal obligation of hospital and medical professional to maintain the wish of the patient. Law handbook Victoria recognizes another law governing certain aspect of hospital care and ethical issue. This law is known as doctor patient confidentiality law this state that medical practitioner doctor, nurse or a paramedical personnel cannot divulge information about his patient to a non related person or a person without patient’s medical attorney until and unless directed by the court of law. . This regulation ensures that dignity and privacy of the patient is maintained and there is no legal or ethical negligence from the doctor in the entire transaction Vickers, (2004, p.232). SOLUTIONS AND BEING ETHICALLY RIGHT In the past years, the physicians were very reluctant to tell the truth to their patients regarding their existing health conditions. On the other hand, in these times the patients do want their physicians to tell them the truth about the diagnosis and the medical therapies. According a survey conducted almost three decades ago, it has been cleared that 97% of the physicians felt that it is correct to tell the truth to the patients regarding all the relevant aspects of their illness which includes the nature of the illness and its expected outcomes. Sometimes it is seen that there is psychological impact on the patient’s mindset and it’s really hard for them to cope with such a stressful situation (Kendall 2006). In such a situation, palliative care specialists can be proved quite helpful as they can provide resources to help the patient and his family deal with emotions that come with a serious illness. They may provide counseling, organize family meeting or make refer rals to mental health professionals if needed (Bush Bruni 2008). However, if the conditions are presented in an undignified manner then it is possible that it may create a negative picture of the situation in the patient’s mind and in that case it is obvious that the sufferings and stress of the patient would increase instead of decreasing and the patient may lose the hope to live (Li et al. 2008). Tuckett suggests that it is necessary to understand the mental state of the patient before passing on the entire information to him. The final decision is made by the doctor and his medical team regarding the disclosure of the truth to the patient after analyzing all his mental status (2012). Even the court of law has approved this argument that if the doctor and his medical team prove with an evidence that the information would have a devastating effect on the patient then they have a full power to hide the information from the patient or they reveal the truth to the patient when they believe it is appropriate time to tell Seymour (2004, p. 165). On the other hand, it may be possible that the patient does not want to listen to the information regarding his health but in such a situation it is the duty of the physician to provide the basic information to the patient (council 2004). IMPACT ON NURSING PRACTICE When the medical practitioners communicate with the patients, being honest is a fundamental way to develop trust and respect for the patient. Patients show a great deal of trust in their physician and they may feel deceived if they discover that there is lack of honesty by the physician. But, sometimes a situation arises when the physician thinks that disclosure would create a harmful effect on the patient and it may be validated to hold back the truthful information in that case. (Robinson January-February) explains that sometimes holding back the truthful information from patient may lead to feeling of regret in the health care providers. It can also be one of the main reasons of moral distress on them. (Goethals, Gastmans de Casterlà © 2010) state that many a times the moral distress may lead to less involvement of nurse in his work. It can also cause some kinds of health problems which may eventually leads to resignation from job. Ulysses et al (2011) asserts that in health pra ctise the therapeutic nondisclosure may lead to frustration which in turn affects the practitioner’s responsibility towards his patient and his family. CONCLUSION Many types of complex situations are often faced by several nurses throughout their professional life. Some professionals consider such types of suffering more badly than death. It is totally unfair to withhold the truth from the patient about his existing health conditions, especially when the patient is capable enough to give the consent about various medications and procedures. According to the constitution of Australia, it is not at all acceptable to claim the life of a person for any medical reason and direct any medications without his consent. This case study has proved very beneficial in developing a very in depth understanding of the various medical laws and legal problems which are faced by the health professionals. It should be the duty of every medical professional that in any situation he should not break any of the legal obligations. It also provides detailed information about the various significant steps that should be taken to handle these types of ethical dilemmas.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Enemy At The Gates Essay -- essays research papers

Enemy at the Gates, a film with intense violence and man’s inhumanity to man, tells the story of the triumph of love and friendship set amidst the brutality of World War II Stalingrad. It is the winter of 1942, and a desperate, poorly equipped and demoralized Russian army faces the possibility of crushing defeat by the might of the German blitzkrieg. A young naà ¯ve soldier from the Urals, Vassily Zaitsev, arrives in Stalingrad where he is thrust into battle amid the needless slaughter of his fellow soldiers be the Germans and his own troops. To his shock, he is not given a rifle to use during the attack. Instead, the men are paired together and one is given a rifle while the other is given extra ammunition. Vassily survives the first fierce assault and finds himself side-by-side with the political officer, Danilov. They are trapped among the bodies of fallen Russian soldiers behind the lines, and Vassily’s talent as a sniper, homed to perfection from a childhood spent hunting wolves with his grandfather, is realized by Danilov when Vassily calmly and methodically kills five German soldiers. Returning to the relative safety of Russian controlled sector in t he city, Danilov, a writer, glorifies Vassily’s exploits in a newspaper article. So begins the unlikely friendship between the highly educated political officer Danilov and the barely literate Private Vassily Zaitsev. Vassily is then elevated to the status of hero when Danilov suggests to an angry and demanding Nikita Krusc...

Drinking, Driving,parties, And Commonsensical Solutions Essay -- Drunk

Drinking and driving is the number one killer of teenagers in America. Because of it, the teenage group is the only age group who’s number of deaths are increasing instead of decreasing. Outright denying teens of alcohol doesn’t work. That just makes young adults want alcohol even more. What’s sad about drinking under the influence cases is that every one of them could have been easily prevented. So, if you cannot deny adolescences of alcohol, why not just educate them on simple precautions that can be taken to prevent drinking and driving.One of the best and oldest ways to stop drinking under the influence is having a designated driver. It’s not a hard thing to do. Just asking someone responsible to accompany you to a party (or whatever it may be) in which you know there will be alcohol. If you don’t know if there will be alcoholic beverages served, take a responsible friend anyway just to make sure.Another good way to keep yourself from being a DUI case is to clear out your car of anything distracting. When you’re drunk, simple things can give you an incredible amount of entertainment. So, clean out your car from fuzzy dice, cellular phones, anything that can distract you. Studies show that just by doing this, your chance of having an accident can be decreased by over 25%. So, you’re already at the party and drinking beer. What can you do? For starters, you can try eating high protein food like meat, cheese, and peanuts. Foods that are rich in protein can help absorb...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essay -- Medical Technology Medicine Essays

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging has the potential of totally replacing computed tomography. If history was rewritten, and CT invented after MRI, nobody would bother to pursue CT. --Philip Drew (Mattson and Simon, 1996) WHAT IT IS Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or commonly known as MRI, is a technique used in medicine for producing images of tissues inside the body. It is an important diagnostic tool because it enables physicians to identify abnormal tissue without opening the body through surgery. MRI lets physicians see through bones and organs. MRI does not expose the patient to radiation, unlike tests that use X-rays. MRI provides an unparallel view inside the human body. It is the method of choice for the diagnosis of certain diseases, disorders, and injuries. MRI is safe for most people, but it uses a powerful magnet and so cannot be used on people with metal implants, such as pacemakers or artificial joints (World Book, 2000). WHAT IT IS LIKE INSIDE Three main components make up an MRI unit: a magnet, devices for transmitting and receiving radio waves, and a computer. The patient is placed inside a machine that has a huge magnet. There is a horizontal tube running through the magnet from front to back. This tube is known as the bore of the magnet. The patient, lying on his or her back, slides into the bore on a special table. Once the body part to be scanned is in the exact center or isocenter of the magnetic field, the scan can begin (www.howstuffworks.com). The magnetic field causes the nuclei of certain atoms inside the body to line up. The machine then sends out a radio signal, which causes the nuclei to change direction. The change create signals that a computer translates to produce ... ...ams are also very expensive. (www.howstuffworks.com) For most patients, the numerous benefits of MRI far outweigh the drawbacks. MRI can provide you with an abundant amount of information about your health.MRI is a tool to diagnose, visualize, amd evaluate parts of our body. MRI can help prevent the spread of diseases by catching them in their early stages, and so still treatable. Staying healthy is probably the most important thing that we can do. Medical technology, such as MRI, can help us do that. Sources: Lauterbur, Paul C., and Liang, Zhi-Pei, Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, IEEE Press, New York, 2000, p. 2-4. Mattson, James, and Simon, Merrill,The Story of MRI, Bar-Ilan University Press, New York, 1996, p. 1. World Book Encyclopedia, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, World Book Inc., Chicago, Vol 13, 2000, p. 56-57. www.howstuffworks.com

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Indigenous Societies

â€Å"Whale Rider† Extra Credit Questions Name ________________________________________ Class Start Time ___________ 1. What object does the grandfather throw overboard a boat (and expects will be retrieved)? a. his father’s brass heirloom pistol b. his traditional chief’s necklace c. his sacred black harpoon d. his sacred smoking pipe e. his radio 2. What is the central conflict in â€Å"Whale Rider†? a. How do indigenous societies keep their traditions and yet accept change? b. How indigenous societies must fight through the legal system to gain title to their land. . How can indigenous societies reverse language loss? d. How do indigenous societies gain control over rising blood pressure? 3. What item has not been finished, but finally is (and is then used) at the end of the film? a. a chief’s house b. a traditional canoe c. a woman’s hut d. a ritual club 4. What (or who) is the grandfather trying to find? a. the sacred carved steering pad dle for his carved war canoe. b. a leader who will lead his people into the next generation. c. a new husband for his spinster granddaughter. d. all of the above 5.What does the grandfather do when the object is not retrieved? a. leaves it there and sinks into a depression. b. retrieves it himself and then breaks it in half with his bare hands. c. forces his son to retrieve it. d. leaves it there and it is never retrieved again. e. calls up a supernatural whale ancestor who swallows it up and spits it onto the beach. 6. This film†¦ a. captures the confusion of a traditional culture in transition to a modern one. b. graphically depicts the abuse of native peoples at the hands of more technologically advanced white colonists. . focuses on what might be called â€Å"slave labor† conditions in Third World sweatshops. d. portrays how one man is able to overcome his drug addiction to become the next chief of the tribe. e. all of the above 7. How does ‘Whale Rider’ conclude? a. the grandfather drowns, killed as he tries to ride a whale. b. the girl is allowed to become a leader. c. the girl’s mother is brought back to life by the supernatural whale spirit. d. the girl helps win the court battle, and gains ocean fishing rights for her people.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Psychological Effects of Bisexuality

What is bisexuality? Synthesizing the predominant theories of bisexuality, Smiley (1997) suggested the following definition: Bisexuality is a sexual orientation in which an individual: experiences a combination of sexual and affectional attractions to members of both sexes; engages to varying degrees in sexual activities with both sexes; and self-identifies as bisexual in a way that is consonant with personal, social, political, and lifestyle preferences (Smiley, 375). Bisexual and the transgender people are two less visible segments of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. According to the authoritative Kinsey Report, which compiles data on human sexuality, almost eight in 10 people have some characteristics of bisexuality, wherein an individual feels attracted to both sexes (Klien, 13). However, bisexuals have to confront not just the homophobia of the straight community, which brands them as promiscuous, even though most are in strictly monogamous relationships, they also face derision from the gay community, which considers them closet gays, hiding behind the veneer of bisexuality because they are afraid to come out. Not surprisingly, therefore, that a recent study by the Australian National University found that bisexuals â€Å"had the worst mental health on measures of anxiety, depression and suicidality (Hall, 28). Tommy (name changed) Hogan, who came to Los Angeles, California nearly two years ago for graduate studies in Health Administration and works for Watts Health Foundation, says in adolescence he found himself being attracted to both boys and girls. In the gender-segregated society we lived in, opportunities for `fooling around' were much more readily available with peers of the same sex. I thought everyone in my circle was like me. So when I came to the Los Angeles it was very surprising to find that there were some individuals who were not attracted to men and others who were not attracted to women† (T. Hogan, personal communication, October 26, 2002). He wouldn't say he was gay. He would only say that he was sleeping with other men. He liked to call it â€Å"M-S-M,† men sleeping with men, you know, Brothers on the down low. I called it being a bisexual. The first thing that Tommy made clear to me is that bisexuality does not describe one sort of behavior, but rather a whole range of behaviors and lifestyles. Talking openly about sexual orientation within as private a community as the African American community is something that is not often done. Tommy revealed his disappointment at the community’s lack of acceptance of non-traditional lifestyles. According to a generally agreed upon definition, it isn't necessary for a person to be equally attracted to men and women and to be involved in multiple relationships, to be bisexual. In fact, a person can be celibate and still be bisexual. It's all a matter of whom he or she finds attractive and how he or she identifies himself or herself. There is no behavioral â€Å"test† to determine whether or not one is bisexual. Bisexuals come in all shapes and sizes, from all occupations, and with all levels of educational, racial and cultural background. When Tommy told his father of his attraction to both men and women, his father simply said that though these desires were natural and most people had them, eventually he expects Tommy to get married and have a family. â€Å"Even though his message was that it was preferable to get married to a woman, I was struck by his statement that same-sex feelings were natural, and by the fact that he didn't put same-sex desire down by calling it a perversion or sin† (T. Hogan, personal communication, October 26, 2002). Hogan says, â€Å"People have this misconception that bisexuals are promiscuous. I have been in strictly monogamous relationships and most of us are perfectly content with that. If people have made up their mind something is abnormal they can come up with as many reasons as to why it is so, and if there are people who think otherwise, they too can come up with a variety of reasons to prove their point. Why can't we approach this from a humanistic viewpoint that people have the right to love whomsoever they want to, as long as it is consensual? Tommy is very content with the bisexual lifestyle he is living. He seems to not know whether or not he will always be this way. I got a sense from our interview that he wasn’t happy being this way. He begin the express the importance of how being very religious he could not live this type of lifestyle. I would have to agree that the Bible does speak against any type of homosexual behavior. Tommy and I have discussed this issue on more t han one occasion. He seems to be confused as to what he really wants. It is a battle for him to be with a woman and be attracted to a man that is in the same company. Tommy at the present lives by himself so he doesn’t feel as if there are any rules he has to live with. He currently resides in the Hollywood area. He is comfortable living this lifestyle and his community contributes to this. Tommy has many friends and he also dates several women. Many individuals do not know that he is bisexual. Individuals might suspect that Tommy is bisexual but they have no confirmation. I am a close friend to Tommy and I actually have had the pleasure of knowing him for two years. I also might add that I have been attracted to Tommy for these two years and have dated him. I do accept his lifestyle as being bisexual because I care about him. But, I choose not to be in a relationship with Tommy because I do not want to risk my life or my health. We have an open and honest relationship so he understands that I have feelings for him but I in know way want to proceed with a relationship. But, if he chooses not to participate in this lifestyle in the future I just might end up being with him. But as one of his friends along with the others, he is accepted and is treated no differently than the next person. Tommy always feels comfortable in talking with me about his sexuality. He seems to be at this point in his life trying to deal with issues in the past that he feels might have led him to being attracted to both women and men. He has never mentioned to me about anything that stemmed from his past that might have triggered this imbalance in sexuality. I personally accept anyone who chooses to live a gay, lesbian or bisexual lifestyle. However, I do not condone dishonesty in sexual relationships with partners who have no knowledge of each other’s sexuality. It is really hard to discuss the responses of others, many individuals just do not know. Tommy is a very nice looking young man and is very professional and classy. He has all the traits that women are seeking in this young adult age. I believe that if women knew of his lifestyle as a bisexual they might not be as interested in him as before. As I mentioned many people question his sexuality but he has encountered no prejudice against him in that regard. Tommy indicates that it wasn’t until he came to Los Angeles that he decided to practice his lifestyle as a bisexual. Los Angeles makes it a lot easier to be bisexual, gay or a lesbian and be accepted in society. He feels most comfortable here and being able to go out in public with another man. He felt as though when he lived with his family he could not practice bisexuality. He never carried out sexual relationships with men until he came to Los Angeles. The sexuality of Black males as well as females is enmeshed with racial stereotyping thus the issues of gays and bisexual blacks is a particularly sensitive one so far as the Black community is concerned. The notion is that bisexuals are confused, promiscuous and greedy. To me promiscuity is really an oxymoron. It’s down to the individual needs and requirement of that person. I will never have an issue with anyone who chooses to be bisexual but in these days it is just unsafe to be with someone who is bisexual because AIDS is so prevalent and many individuals are just not honest with their sexual orientation.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Miss Greenford

Miss Greenford sat behind her 95 years old typewriter she inherited from the father to type down a letter to her only son who serves with the US army. She said, †Dear John, I miss you so much, my second baby. Daddy hasn't being feeling well for the past three months and he is worried he wouldn't make it before you return from the war. His wish is to see you before going home. Please do come quickly when you get this letter. Grandma sends her greetings, and Doggy your cat too. While she sat typing, John, in the silence of an explosion from the enemy's camp, swallowed a bullet. †Retreat everyone†, the General shouted. Lieutenant Jamal from Afghanistan carried his friend on his shoulder and ran into the tent where the nurses tended the wounds of the injured soldiers. †Johnny, Johnny please speak to me. Open your eyes† he solemnly requested but John quietly was giving up the ghost. The only word that came out of his mouth was ‘mama'. Lieut. Jamal cried! He has lost the only friend in the army that cared for him.He remembered how he used to play basketball with John alone as all the guys refused his company and called him names. One day at assembly, it was announced a war has broken up between the US and Russia and all males were entreated to enlist in the army asap. Jamal was frightened to death because he never liked the sound of a gun. Growing up in a ghetto where the father was a warlord, he was called Ja, the whimp. He always hides under the bed during a fight of guns on the streets but John encouraged him that they can do it. He will be there for him anytime and protect him against the bullies. John was the brother Jamal never had. And now he doesn't know how he can manage without him.Back home, Miss Greenford bought a stamp at the post office, sealed her letter and posted it to his loving son. She can't wait to see him after eight solid months of separation. This war has had a toll on everyone. Miss Greenford herself has been feeling a severe ache in her left breast lately. Scared of the worst, she has refused to visit the hospital for a checkup. †I need to be strong to take care of my two boys, John and his father†, she always whispers to herself. Three weeks later, on the day Miss Greenford had planned on passing by the post office to check if her son has replied, there was a loud knock on the door which startled even the flower pot on the window pane and it came crushing on the floor.'Who is there?' she shouted from the kitchen. ‘Friends of John, the voices echoed. Miss Greenford dashed out of the kitchen like a flash of lightening only to get to the door to see men dressed in uniform carrying a coffin. Immediately, she collapsed. She woke up to the news of her husband passing out of cardio attack when he wheeled his chair to the door because he also heard the shout of †friends of John† from his room.†Both my boys had left me, she cried. What does it profit me to be alive and not happy? The two things that gave me joy have been snatched from me, mama†. Old mama Gracie was there to console her daughter. She told her not stop crying. She should spit every phlegm of bitterness out, then she can have her peace. †I have been here before and I know how it feels but don't worry it will make you stronger. It always does† Your daddy died in the war too. The only man I have ever known tasted death while in an amour defending his country. But he died a happy man. He died knowing that at least he paid his dues to his country. So sad he was before he died when I was pregnant with you for two weeks that the doctor said it is a girl. We had both been praying for a boy, but he prayed more fervently because he wanted his son to be a soldier, a protector of the state and dreams of America. Though disappointed, he loved you so very much, my baby. Be glad you gave daddy a soldier, now his soul will rest in peace.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Stock and Debt

CHAPTER 12 QUESTIONS 12-1Operating leverage affects EBIT and, through EBIT, EPS. Financial leverage generally has no effect on EBIT—it only affects EPS, given EBIT. 12-2Because Firm A has a higher fixed operating costs, its operating income will change by a greater percentage than Firm B’s operating income if sales change. Firm A has a higher degree of operating leverage than Firm B. 12-3If sales tend to fluctuate widely, then cash flows and the ability to service fixed charges also will vary. Consequently, there is a relatively large risk that the firm will be unable to meet its fixed charges.As a result, firms in unstable industries tend to use less debt than those whose sales are subject to only moderate fluctuations. 12-4The tax benefits from debt increase linearly, which causes a continuous increase in the firm’s value and stock price. However, bankruptcy-related costs begin to be felt after some amount of debt has been employed, and these costs offset the benefits of debt. See Figure 12-5 in the textbook. 12-5Carson does have leverage because its EPS increases by a greater multiple than its sales when sales change. According to the information that is given, Carson’s DTL is 4 = 20/5.Because we have no information about either the firm’s operating fixed costs or its fixed financing costs, we cannot state whether the firm has operating leverage, financial leverage, or both. 12-6EBIT depends on sales and operating costs that generally are not affected by the firm’s use of financial leverage, because interest is deducted from EBIT. At high debt levels, however, firms lose business, employees worry, and operations are not continuous because of financing difficulties. Thus, financial leverage can influence sales and cost, hence EBIT, if excessive leverage causes investors, customers, and employees to be oncerned about the firm’s future. 12-7Expected EPS generally is measured as EPS for the coming years, and we typically do not reflec t in this calculation any bankruptcy-related costs. Also, EPS does not reflect (in a major way) the increase in risk and ks that accompanies an increase in the debt ratio, whereas P0 does reflect these factors. Thus, the stock price will be maximized at a debt level that is lower than the EPS-maximizing debt level. 12-8A firm can change the proportion of debt it uses in its capital structure. If the firm has too much (little) debt, it can reduce (increase) the proportion of debt in its capital structure.Such as change should decrease the firm’s WACC, and thus increase its value. 12-9Absolute’s optimal capital structure is 40 percent debt (= $20,000,000/$50,000,000), because the market price of the company’s stock ($130. 75) is maximized at this point. 12-10With increased competition after the breakup of AT&T, the new AT&T and the seven Bell operating companies’ business risk increased. With this component of total company risk increasing, the new companie s probably decided to reduce their financial risk, and use less debt, to compensate.With increased competition the chance of bankruptcy increases and lowering debt usage makes this less of a possibility. If we consider the tax issue alone, interest on debt is tax deductible; thus, the higher the firm’s tax rate the more beneficial the deductibility of interest is. However, competition and business risk have tended to outweigh the tax aspect as we saw from the actual debt ratios of the Bell companies. The Bell companies and the new AT&T lowered their debt ratios, for reasons along these lines. 2-11Several possibilities exist for the firm, but trying to match the length of the project with the maturity of the financing plan seems to be the best approach. The firm might want to finance the R&D with short-term debt and then, if the project’s results are successful, to raise the needed capital for production through long-term debt or equity. Another possibility would be to issue convertible bonds, which can be converted to common stock—a lower interest rate would be paid now, and in the future (presumably the stock price will increase with the new process) investors would trade in the bonds for stock.One also should keep in mind that this project, and R&D in general, is extremely risky and debt financing might not be available except at extremely high rates. For this reason, many R&D companies have low debt ratios, instead paying low dividends and using retained earnings for financing projects. Under Debt financing the expected EPS is $5. 78, the standard deviation is $1. 05, the CV is 0. 18, and the debt ratio increases to 75. 5%. (The debt ratio had been 70. 6 percent. Under Equity financing the expected EPS is $5. 51, the standard deviation is $0. 85, the CV is 0. 15, and the debt ratio decreases to 58. 8 percent. At this interest rate, debt financing provides a higher expected EPS than equity financing; however, the debt ratio is significan tly higher under the debt financing situation as compared with the equity financing situation. Because EPS is not significantly greater under debt financing, but the risk is noticeably greater, equity financing should be recommended.INTEGRATIVE PROBLEMANSWER: Business risk is the uncertainty associated with a firm’s projection of its future operating income.It also is defined as the risk faced by a firm’s stockholders if the company uses no debt. A firm’s business risk is affected by many factors, including: (1) variability in the demand for its output, (2) variability in the price at which its output can be sold, (3) variability in the prices of its inputs, (4) the firm’s ability to adjust output prices as input prices change, (5) the amount of operating leverage used by the firm, and (6) special risk factors (such as potential product liability for a drug company or the potential cost of a nuclear accident for a utility with nuclear plants).ANSWER: Oper ating leverage is the extent to which fixed operating costs are used in a firm’s operations. If a high percentage of the firm's total operating costs are fixed, and hence do not decline when demand falls, then the firm is said to have high operating leverage. Other things held constant, the greater a firm’s operating leverage, the greater its business risk. [pic] ANSWER: Financial leverage refers to the firm’s decision to finance with fixed-charge securities, such as debt and preferred stock. Financial risk is the additional risk, over and above the company's inherent business risk, orne by the stockholders as a result of the firm's decision to finance with debt. [pic] ANSWER: As we discussed above, business risk depends on a number of factors such as sales and cost variability, and operating leverage. Financial risk, on the other hand, depends on only one factor—the amount of fixed-charge capital (financing) the company uses. [pic] ANSWER: Here are the f ully completed statements: The expected TIE would be larger than 2. 5x if less debt were used, but smaller if leverage were increased. [pic] ANSWER: The optimal capital structure is the capital structure at which the tax-related benefits of leverage are exactly offset by debt’s risk-related costs.At the optimal capital structure, (1) the total value of the firm is maximized, (2) the WACC is minimized, and the price per share is maximized. [pic] ANSWER: Here is the sequence of events: 1. CDSS must first announce its recapitalization plans. 2. The company’s stock would have some market price before the announcement, in this case, $20 per share. The company would have to estimate (a) the price it would have to pay for the repurchased shares and (b) the method to be used for the repurchase (open market purchases, or a tender offer). 3.For simplicity, we assume that the firm could repurchase stock at its current price, $20, which also happens to be its book value per share. In actuality, investors would probably reassess their views about the firm’s profitability and risk under the new capital structure, and the stock price probably would rise. No current shareholder would be willing to sell at a price very far below the expected new price, although some would be afraid the recap plan might not go through, and those stockholders would sell out at a lower-than-expected price.Therefore, the stock price would adjust quickly to a new equilibrium that reflects the recapitalization. 4. CDSS would purchase stock, then issue debt and use the proceeds to pay for the repurchased stock. After the recapitalization, the company would have more debt but fewer common shares outstanding. A new EPS could be calculated, and the price would settle into its new level. [pic]4. ANSWER: The analysis for the debt levels being considered (in thousands of dollars and shares) is shown below: At Debt = $0: [pic] At Debt = $250,000: Shares repurchased = $250,000/$20 = 12,5 00.Remaining shares outstanding = 100,000 – 12,500 = 87,500. Note: EPS and TIE calculations are in thousands of dollars. ) [pic] At Debt = $500,000: Shares repurchased = $500,000/$20 = 25,000. Remaining shares outstanding = 100,000 – 25,000 = 75,000. (Note: EPS and TIE calculations are in thousands of dollars. ) [pic] At Debt = $750,000: Shares repurchased = $750,000/$20 = 37,500. Remaining shares outstanding = 100,000 – 37,500 = 62,500. (Note: EPS and TIE calculations are in thousands of dollars. ) [pic] At Debt = $1,000,000: Shares repurchased = $1,000,000/$20 = 50,000. Remaining shares outstanding = 100,000 – 50,000 = 50,000. (Note: EPS and TIE calculations are in thousands of dollars. [pic] [pic] ANSWER: We can calculate the price of a constant growth stock as DPS divided by rs minus g, where g is the expected growth rate in dividends: [pic] Because in this case all earnings are paid out to the stockholders, DPS = EPS. Further, because no earnings are plowed back, the firm’s EBIT is not expected to grow, so g = 0.Here are the results: Debt Level DPS rs Stock Price $ 0 $3. 00 15. 0% $20. 00 250,000 3. 26 15. 5 21. 03 500,000 3. 56 16. 5 21. 58* 750,000 3. 86 18. 0 21. 44 1,000,000 4. 8 20. 0 20. 40 * maximum ANSWER: A capital structure with $500,000 of debt produces the highest stock price, $21. 58, hence it is the best of those considered. ANSWER: We have seen that EPS continues to increase beyond the $500,000 optimal level of debt. Therefore, focusing on EPS when making capital structure decisions is not correct—while the EPS does take account of the differential cost of debt, it does not account for the increasing risk that must be borne by the equity holders. ANSWER: Currently, Debt/Total assets = 0%, so total assets = initial equity = $20 x 100,000 shares = $2,000,000.WACC = ($500,000/$2,000,000)[(11%)(0. 60)] + ($1,500,000/$2,000,000)(16. 5%) = 1. 65% + 12. 38% = 14. 03%. NOTE: If we had (1) used the equilibri um price for repurchasing shares and (2) used market value weights to calculate WACC, then we could be sure that the WACC at the price-maximizing capital structure would be the minimum. Using a constant $20 purchase price, and book value weights, inconsistencies might creep in. [pic] ANSWER: If the firm had higher business risk, then, at any debt level, its probability of financial distress would be higher.Investors would recognize this, and both rd and rs would be higher than originally estimated. It is not shown in this analysis, but the end result would be an optimal capital structure with less debt. Conversely, lower business risk would lead to an optimal capital structure that included more debt. ANSWER: The three degrees of leverage are calculated below: S = $1,350,000 New debt = $500,000 @ 11% VC = 0. 6S F = $40,000 (Note: Calculations are in thousands of dollars. ) [pic] [pic] DTL = DOL x DFL = 1. 08 x 1. 12 = 1. 21. The degree of operating leverage is defined as the percent age change in perating income (EBIT) associated with a given percentage change in sales. Because our company’s degree of operating leverage is 1. 08, this means that a given percentage increase in sales will lead to an 8 percent greater increase in EBIT. For example, if sales increased by 100 percent, then EBIT would increase by 108 percent. The degree of financial leverage is defined as the percentage change in EPS associated with a given percentage change in EBIT. Because CDSS’s degree of financial leverage is 1. 12, this means that if EBIT increased by 100 percent, then EPS would increase by 112 percent.The degree of total leverage shows the combined effects of operating and financial leverage on the firm’s earnings per share. It is defined as the percentage change in EPS brought about by a given percentage change in sales, and it is calculated as DOL x DFL. Because CDSS’s DTL is 1. 21, a 100 percent increase in sales would produce a 121 percent increa se in EPS. The degree of leverage concept is useful for planning purposes, as it gives an idea of what will happen to earnings as sales vary. Investors can use the concept to consider firms with different leverages if they expect sales to rise or fall. [pic]ANSWER: Because it is difficult to quantify the capital structure decision, managers consider the following judgmental factors when making capital structure decisions: (1)The average debt ratio for firms in their industry. (2)Pro forma tie ratios at different capital structures under different scenarios. (3)Lender/rating agency attitudes. (4)Reserve borrowing capacity. (5)Effects of financing on control. (6)Asset structure. (7)Expected tax rate. ANSWER: The following figure presents a graph of the situation: [pic] The use of debt permits a firm to obtain tax savings from the deductibility of interest.So the use of some debt is good; however, the possibility of bankruptcy increases the cost of using debt. At higher and higher leve ls of debt, the risk of bankruptcy increases, bringing with it costs associated with potential financial distress. Customers reduce purchases, key employees leave, and so on. There is some point, generally well below a debt ratio of 100 percent, at which problems associated with potential bankruptcy more than offset the tax savings from debt. Theoretically, the optimal capital structure is found at the point where the marginal tax savings just equal the marginal bankruptcy-related costs.However, analysts cannot identify this point with precision for any given firm, or for firms in general. Analysts can help managers determine an optimal range for their firm’s debt ratios, but the capital structure decision still is more judgmental than based on precise calculations. ANSWER: The asymmetric information concept is based on the premise that management’s choice of financing gives signals to investors. Firms with good investment opportunities will not want to share the benef its with new stockholders, so they will tend to finance with debt. Firms with poor prospects, on the other hand, will want to finance with stock.Investors know this, so when a large, mature firm announces a stock offering, investors take this as a signal of bad news, and the stock price declines. Firms know this, so they try to avoid having to sell new common stock. This means maintaining a reserve of borrowing capacity so that when good investments come along, they can be financed with debt. 12-17Computer-Related Problem a. If the outstanding debt has to be refunded at the new higher interest rate, expected EPS would decline under either financing plan. However, EPS would decline more if debt financing were used. Therefore, ebt financing has become relatively less attractive than stock financing. The output generated by the model is given below:ETHICAL DILEMMA A BOND IS A BOND †¦ IS A STOCK †¦ IS A BONDOCK?Ethical dilemma: Wally is evaluating whether to use a new (to the United States) financial instrument to raise funds to finance Ohio Rubber & Tire’s (ORT) expansion plans. The new instrument, which is called a bondock, has some characteristics of traditional debt and some characteristics that are similar to common equity. The cost of capital associated with bondocks is slightly higher than traditional debt, but significantly lower than common equity.If ORT’s expansion plans are successful, both its bondholders and its stockholders will receive handsome returns. However, if the expansion plans are not successful, then it appears that stockholders can still benefit but at the expense of bondholders. ORT’s executives are some of the company’s major stockholders, so it appears that they would be in favor of issuing bondocks. Discussion questions: ?Is there an ethical problem? If so, what is it? The question here is whether it is appropriate to use a new financial instrument called a bondock to raise funds needed for expansi on.Because the cost of capital associated with a bondock is slightly higher than the cost of debt but significantly lower than the cost of equity, management thinks that it might be appropriate to use this medium to raise funds to invest in risky ventures. If the expansion investment is successful, both the bondholders and the stockholders will benefit. Of course, the benefit to stockholders will be greater than the benefit to bondholders. On the other hand, if the expansion investment is unsuccessful, both bondholders and stockholders will suffer financial losses.But, because the market values of the bondocks will decline significantly, the firm could benefit by repurchasing these financing instruments in the capital markets. In this case, stockholders would benefit at the expense of bondholders. As a result, the ethical question is whether ORT should raise funds using bondocks knowing that there is a possibility that its stockholders will gain at the expense of its bondholders. ?I s it appropriate for ORT to use bondocks to raise funds that are needed for expansion? Is there an ethical dilemma here? Maybe not. Remember that investors take risks when purchasing the stocks and bonds of firms.In this case, ORT would be wise to use bondocks if the purpose is to raise funds for expansion while trying to lower the cost of capital associated with â€Å"going to† the financial markets. It might be argued that it is unethical for ORT to use bondocks if the intent is to benefit executives who receive bonuses and incentives in the form of the company’s stock. It also might be argued that it is unethical if the intent is to harm the position of bondholders.However, if the primary objective is to increase the value of the firm, then it is difficult to argue that issuing this new financial instrument is unethical. What would you do if you were Wally? It seems that the best solution is for Wally to try to get more information about the new financial instrument called a bondock. Because little is known about bondocks and they appear to be rather complex financial instruments, Wally should gather more information about the risks as well as the benefits to ORT associated with using this medium to raise funds for expansion. Once he has performed his due diligence, Wally should determine whether using bondocks will benefit the firm and its investors in general.If the answer is â€Å"no,† then bondocks should not be used. References: The following articles might be assigned for background material: Emily Thornton, â€Å"Gluttons at the Gate,† BusinessWeek, October 30, 2006, pp. 58-66. David Henry, â€Å"Cross-Dressing Securities,† BusinessWeek, March 13, 2006, pp. 58-59

Language Choice in Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Language Choice in Communication - Essay Example This essay will assess the assertion by speakers such as Ioan who claimed "I text and Facebook in English. It feels that English is more international, more universal. It seems to make more sense to use it on the internet". To understand language acquisition and use it is necessary to make a comparison in learning of Welsh and English among school going children. This is because there are a number of inconsistencies within the languages which may in most cases impact on the competency reported by children who have had similar levels of exposure to the two languages. Comparison of English with other European languages based on the analysis of their orthography indicates there are levels of dissimilarities between them. The European languages such as Welsh, Spanish and Finish have their phonemes and the letters closely related. This means one letter in these languages will in almost all cases represent a distinct sound. It therefore becomes simple for fluent reader familiar with alphab etic systems of these languages to read them even when they might not comprehend the meaning of the words. However, this might not be the case for someone who wants to apply the same in English which is because there are a number of differences between a number of English letters and the sound system of the language. The complexity in English is as a result of the existence of more sounds in spoken English than the twenty-six symbols representing the letters of the English alphabet. Additionally, the English orthography is not a precise representation of any particular accent that should be adopted when speaking Standard English.