Thursday, October 31, 2019

Analysis a relationship about economic Statistics Project

Analysis a relationship about economic - Statistics Project Example The money in supply and inflation rate is always interconnected because a high amount of money in supply usually devalues demand for money. For instance, in a small town if all residents were to get $50 raise in their salary each month, if they were paying about $14 on their gas, then with the rise they will likely not mind paying $15 given the fact that it is relatively less than what they normally spent on gasoline per week. In most cases, this is normally how the relationship between inflation and money often starts, when the market is able to bear high prices due to increase in the money supply (Mishkin, 40). Therefore, most customers will most likely opt out of buying a product at the same price it was before the inflation occurred simply because the buying power of the currency has been worn out. The graph above shows the estimated value of the relationship between inflation and money growth. The rate of inflation depends on the amount of money in supply. When one takes into consideration the classical theory, money does not affect real variables but has an effect on nominal variables such as inflation. This, therefore, means that when plotting the graph, the rate of inflation will be plotted on the y-axis while the supply of money will be plotted on the x-axis. The blue dots are the actual values while the red line shows the fitted values. In the long run, the correlation between money and inflation is rather high and can be estimated to almost one. However, when the short term period is taken into consideration, the relationship between money and inflation is rather weak which could be an attributing factor as to why the curve showing the relationship between money and inflation is not straight. Several economic theories can be applied in order to try to explain the relationship between money supply and inflation. If one were to use the quantity supply theory, also refers to as monetarism, the relation between money in supply and

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Leadership and Corporate Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership and Corporate Behavior - Essay Example Hence, the point needs to be made about team selection taking priority at the initial stages itself and then selecting and choosing team members in such a way as to ensure that people who have a history of ethical behavior are selected. This can be done at the time of hiring and recruitment itself. The team members must be hired after thorough background checks and vetting so that any previous disposition towards unethical behavior is found out (Salmon, 1993). Leadership is all about leading from the front and by example. Hence, there is a need to develop leaders who are capable and also exhibit ethical behavior. This is the primary requirement for leadership. So, the teams that are to be formed should have the leaders in such a way as to ensure that illegal activity and recourse to unethical behavior is curbed. In conclusion, it is incumbent upon the team leadership to guide the team in such a way that ethical norms are followed and that the team follows normative rules of behavior consistent with those drawn up by the ethics committee (McCall, 2002). 2) A crisis management plan has to anticipate crises, plan for contingencies and have a mitigation strategy when the crises arise. This is the essence of a good crisis management plan. To take each of the components in turn, a good crisis management plan must be able to anticipate future crises from happening. Though all crises cannot be anticipated, there are many of them that can be identified at the beginning of the planning process. These include the system outages, threat of building collapse and accidents involving personnel (Daboub, 1995). The next step would be to have a back up plan for contingencies that revolves around the ways and means to deal with the crises. For instance, there can be back up servers when the main server crashes leading to an outage. Similarly, there can be an alternative site that can house some personnel in case of damage to the main

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Introduction to the Id and the Superego

Introduction to the Id and the Superego The topic of discussion today was Understanding Our Own Defences. Since the lesson, I have been researching this subject and learned that it was Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) who first began to write about the mechanisms our brain uses to stop us from feeling anxiety, guilt or hurt. Freud believed that our psyche, which is not our physical brain, more our personality and the way we behave, is split into three. He called these parts the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego. He thought that the id was submerged out of sight in our subconscious, whereas the ego and super ego were in our consciousness. The id is the primitive and instinctive part of our personality that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories, the super-ego operates as a moral conscience, and the ego is the realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. According to the theory, we are born with only the id part of our personality, and we go on to develop the ego and super ego at aro und 3 to 5 years of age. The Id, however, remains a personality trait throughout our life, one of its traits is that it demands immediate attention. Freud stated that the ego is That part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world. It develops as a sort of negotiator between the id and the external world, however, as Freud himself observed, it developed as a mechanism to postpone satisfaction and to help the individual fit into societies expectations of them. The ego concerns itself with a more rational, problem-solving state of mind and will try to re-think solutions until the problem is solved. Freud made the analogy of the id being a horse while the ego is the rider. The ego is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse. The main purpose of the superego is to control the impulses of the id, especially those which society forbids such as aggression or sex. It acts as a sort of moral compass for the ego, striving for perfection rather than simple realistic outcomes and consists of two components, the conscience and the ideal self. It is driven by unconscious values learned from parents and society, and because perfection is the goal, falling short can lead us to feelings of shame or guilt, so, in order to deal with these feelings, Freud declared that the ego employs a range of defence mechanisms. These defence mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings such as anxiety or guilt which may have arisen because we felt threatened, or because our id or superego became too demanding. Freud identified seven defence mechanisms, but there are much more. Repression: pushing away a thought or a feeling, saying to yourself lets forget about it, Many things can be an object of repression such as painful memories of forbidden desires. Although, sometimes our true feelings can leak out in what is known as a Freudian slip, like the man who was introduced to a colleague who had got the big promotion he had applied for. His opening remark was Hello I am David, pleased to beat you Denial: Refusing to accept that something exists or happened. This can be a mechanism that is seen when someone refuses to accept the death of a loved one. Or making excuses for continuing unhealthy behaviour such as smoking, with phrases such as my granny smoked forty a day and lived until she was one hundred and two. Projection: This involves individuals attributing their own thoughts, feelings and motives to another person. Thoughts most commonly projected onto another are ones that would cause guilt such as aggressive and sexual fantasies or thoughts. For instance, you might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can solve the problem by believing that they hate you. Rationalisation: Creating an acceptable but incorrect explanation of a situation, for example, the man caught stealing computers from the warehouse he works at Its not stealing, my company sells millions of computers for big profit, they wont miss the two that I have taken. Intellectualisation: Thinking about something logically without any attached emotion, for example, Counsellor: Well Jane, your husband has left you, and you have been made redundant, how does that feel? Janes response: I now have a lot more time on my hands, I can get on with the gardening and catch up on some odd jobs around the house, as for my job I did not like it much anyway. Reaction formation: Doing the opposite of what you would really like to do, being over-nice to someone you dislike is a good example of this. The best example is the person who mutters through gritted teeth No, I am not angry. Regression: Acting in the way a child might if they did not get their own way. Foot stamping, speaking in a whiney voice or storming off are good examples of this. As we can see above, defence mechanisms are protective, coping, strategies adopted by the brain to shield us from painful feelings. The brain has said to itself Im too afraid to feel this so Im going to make something up that I wont be so afraid of. As a counsellor, our job is to attempt to get through these defences to the core issue that is troubling the client and to provide the support the client needs to initiate a change within themselves. This may take some time as the client may not initially trust or feel comfortable with us. They may feel frightened or embarrassed to show their true feelings. The Oxford English Dictionary defines trust as a firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something. Carl Rogers said, a good counsellor will have some sense of how to match the pace of counselling sessions to the needs of their clients. So, in summary, when a client first comes to us, they will probably demonstrate some of the defences written about above, we will then carefully use our counselling skills to build a rapport and try to make the client feel comfortable enough to start to discuss why they feel the need to seek counselling.  

Friday, October 25, 2019

Vitamin C in Treatment of the Common Cold :: Health Medicine Papers

Vitamin C in Treatment of the Common Cold Is Vitamin C the cure for the common cold? Will it reduce the severity and duration of a cold? Will it prevent you from ever having another cold? Of course, we would all like to think that would be true, but what’s the real effect of Vitamin C supplements? What is Vitamin C and Where Can I Find It? Vitamin C is water soluble and functions as an antioxidant and as a coenzyme. Furthermore, it can perform different functions in various situations, such as aiding in collagen formation for teeth, cartilage, and connective tissue and aiding in the formation of new tissue in wound healing. Vitamin C can be found in foods such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, cantaloupe, grapefruit, kiwi, oranges, peppers, and strawberries. Presently the RDA is 60 mg. What are the Dangers? Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency is rather rare in Western countries, however, it still occurs in alcoholics, drug addicts, and the elderly--groups whose dietary intakes are often very poor. Marginal deficiency symptoms are gingivitis, loose teeth, aching limbs and joints, poor wound healing, and weakening of tissues which increases the risk of infection. (Grodner, Anderson, & DeYoung; 1996) Vitamin C Toxicity Despite the fact that Vitamin C is essential to good health, you can have too much of a good thing. Although toxicity from foods high in Vitamin C does not occur, taking supplements in large doses (1 gm to 15 gm) may result in symptoms such as cramps, nausea, diarrhea, kidney stones, and gout. After receiving excessive amounts of Vitamin C, the body begins to destroy much of the excess Vitamin C that is in circulation. Furthermore, there is a potential rebound effect upon abruptly stopping supplementation for the body is still in the process of destroying the vitamin. (Grodner, Anderson, & DeYoung; 1996) Brown (1973) also warned that chronic massive doses of Vitamin C resulted in increased mobilization of calcium and phosphate from the skeletons of chicks, weakening the bone structure. Although unsure if massive doses would produce the same effect in humans, the author warned against chronic massive supplementation. Vitamin C and Colds: How Does it Work? Vitamin C is often used for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Wilson, Loh, and Foster (1972) state that the prophylactic effect refers to the ability of vitamin C to prevent a cold Furthermore, commencement of administration of vitamin C when cold symptoms first appear constitutes the therapeutic use.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Coca cola marketing research Essay

The Coca-Cola company was established back in 1886 and it is most famous of creating the soft drink Coca Cola. Based on a global brand study, Coca Cola was the world’s most valuable brand in 2011. Though, just like all those â€Å"old† and well developed brands, Coca Cola is facing aging problem, a disconnection with the younger generation and it seems like people are not picking up coca cola as a trendy drink and a sign of coolness anymore as there are so many other drinks available in the market nowaday. In order to make the brand’s image younger, Coca Cola started a campaign back in 2011 called â€Å"Share a Coke†, internally known as â€Å"Project Connect†. It is a worldwide campaign that started with their Australia team and in 2014 the campaign has finally reached Hong Kong. There are two objectives for this campaign, to get the attention of the younger generation and to make them feel like Coca Cola is still a trendy and cool thing to be talk ing about and another communication objective for the campaign is really just to have everyone to talk about Coca Cola again, both in the real and virtual world. As mentioned, Coca cola is trying to get collection with young people again and to make Coca Cola the cool thing to be talking about among people, so the target audience of the campaign is young adults focusing on demographic of 18 – 25 years old, who is health consumers, affluent and really is the current and future major stakeholders for the brand. In order to bring people together to â€Å"Share a Coke†, Coca Cola swapped out Coke’s classic label on bottles and cans with 200 of Hong Kong’s most popular nick names, like â€Å"Ã¥ ¥ ³Ã§Å¡â€¡ (queen), â€Å"Gag 王 (joke maker)†, †Buddy†, â€Å"ç ²â€°Ã§ µ ²(fans)†, â€Å"é â€Ã¤ º º(expert)†, â€Å"Ã¥ ¥ ³Ã§ ¥Å¾ (goddess)†, â€Å"ç” ·Ã§ ¥Å¾ (god)† or common names like â€Å"Yan†, â€Å"Wah†, â€Å"Lee†, â€Å"Fung† and â€Å"Ming† or phases like â€Å"miss you†, â€Å"love you†, â€Å"Oh Dear†, à ¢â‚¬Å"Cheer up† and â€Å"I’m yours† etc. This is one of the strategy that Coca Cola came out to bring together to talk about Coca Cola again, a new concept that Coke came up and wants to promote is â€Å"Shareability†. Coca Cola understands the best way to connect people is to have something they can share or even can send it as a gift to their friends and relatives. Moreover, If you can’t find a nick name, common names nor phases that best represent you or your love one? No worries, Coca Cola had created a web page for customers to go online and create a virtual bottle to share it on social media (e.x. facebook, Instagram and Twitter†¦etc) with their friends and family. Coca Cola would never missed a single person who is interested in â€Å"Share a Coke† out. In other countries, such as the U.S. and U.K., customers with less common names (or basically if you can’t find what you are looking for), they are able to get a mini can customized with their name on it at one of their pop up stops. Because of Hong Kong don’t have the similar promotion, people are starting to sell the service of helping people to order personalized cans and bottles in the U.K. This also helped Coca Cola Hong Kong to create the basic foundation of pull strategy as supply was super limited and it I very time consuming to mail the products from overseas to Hong Kong making the products very hard to get. Another advantage of the success of the â€Å"Share a Coke† campaign overseas is that it offered the Hong Kong campaign a word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and WOM plays an important role as a communications tool in modern marketing. As Kotler (2009) suggests that if an organization can develop a marketing program to harness and   accelerate the use of personal recommendation effectively, the more likely it will be that the marketing program will be successful. This also acted as a demand-created pull strategy, as overseas people were gifting that to people who are living in Hong Kong and Hong Kong people were soon demanding to see this unique style of Coca Cola cans in Hong Kong. As soon as people got hold with a can of the personalized Coca Cola, they will share it on Instagram to show people how cool they are. Indeed, in Hong Kong, before the official campaign launched, Coke partnered with Volkswagen and sent personalized Coke can in a fancy box to younger generation celebrities like Charlene Choi, Gillian Chung, Shiga Lin and PakHo Chau†¦etc. On the cover of that fancy white box, Coca Cola encouraged celebrities to create a post on Instagram with hashtag shoareacokehk and cocacolahk. This encouragement of sharing those â€Å"Share a coke† cans on Instagram or Facebook created another pull strategy which would eventually catching the suppliers’ attention to inquiry to Coca Cola about those unique cans as celebrities are always the focus point for people to follow where the trend is. After this massive breakthrough, â€Å"Share a coke† cans and bottles were then secretly (without any proper announcement† sent to convenience stores like 711, OK and  supermarket likes Wellcome and ParknShop. As soon as they were in stock, people started to treasure hunt to trying to â€Å"share a coke with their love one and to post it on social platforms†, mainly on Instagram and Facebook. *See below images as examples. In a situation like this, the push strategy will play its part in meeting the objectives for this campaign which is letting the supplier know the demand for this product which is created by celebrities influences, social media powers and later advertising. Finally persuading retailers to both stock the product and to actively promote the â€Å"Share a coke† cans to their customers and finally making the product more accessible. Ever since Coca Cola started to encourage people to â€Å"Share a coke†, people have been uploading Instagram and Facebook posts on a regular basis. This is a creative way to make use of the profile strategy as numerous posts will be updated on Instagram everyday automatically under hashtag shareacokehk and cocacolahk and keeping stakeholders/audiences up to date with campaign information and the official Coca Cola Instagram would also share people’s â€Å"Share a coke† moment. This tactic is cost effective for Coca Cola (saved money on hiring a spoke person as many celebrities have automatically became a â€Å"spoke person† the moment they shared their personalized Coca Cola), it created a free of charge profile strategy as fans or lay people will soon follow what celebrities are doing and share a coke with their name on social media platform. This â€Å"Share a Coke† wave has caught media’s attention as bloggers and magazines were reporting this. Therefore, at a later time, personalized cans were also sent to famous bloggers, magazine editors and particular for those who have a high number of followers/fan base on Instagram. In order to â€Å"officially† announce and position Coca Cola in the minds of consumers with a view to differentiation and to inform prospective customers about the â€Å"Share a Coke† campaign, Coca Cola then started to advertise on traditional platform. It aired a television commercial on one of the biggest television channels in Hong Kong-TVB, pointing out the various nickname that people can find to mix and match them. Advertising on national television offer mass coverage, flexible format and uses sight, movement and sound  which fit in with the young adult demographic as things like that will attract their attention. They have also created posters telling people to share a coke with their mom and dad to emphasize the objective of this campaign- shareability of the product, to make people talking about Coca Cola again. Coca Cola also rented several outdoors places at causeway bay (e.x. Sogo), creating a venting machine like billboard starting â€Å"Share a coke with the person next to you, Share Coca Cola, Share happiness† and putting all the available names on there for making potential customers aware of the offering. Advertising outdoor creates a good coverage as a support medium and as the location (Sogo, Causeway bay) is where all the young adults go, it creates a perfect interesting background for young adult to take a picture and share it on Instagram as it is not so easy to spot such a large scale Coca Cola machine in your daily life. *See below images as examples. Ogilvy & Mather (the advertising agency behind all these) had also found Jonathan Mak (who editing the Apple logo in remembrance of Steve Jobs) to design a poster inspired by â€Å"Share a Coke† to advertise this campaign. You can see attached, to depict two hands sharing a Coke. This poster has served as something unique, young and trendy to matches with the target audience of the campaign. Evaluation of effectiveness: should be related to the campaign objectives and the particular tools chosen, e.g. advertising could be post-testing, tracking studies, likeability or enquiry tests. Particular market research techniques using qualitative or quantitative methods should be proposed, e.g. focus groups, surveys. A researcher quote in Wilson (2006: p.29) suggests that, â€Å"The proposal is the most important part of the whole research project†. Before we evaluate the effectiveness of the tools use, let me restate the objective of this campaign again, which is to reconnect with young adults and just have people talking about Coca Cola again. In order to evaluate whether or not the television commercial tool is effective or not, I would use likeability test  as to researching to what degree people enjoyed the advertisement and really feel like they have connect with the â€Å"Share a coke† campaign. I propose using quantitative research which is described by Wilson (2006) as a structured approach producing quantifiable data for statistical analysis, gathered from a population  sample or census. I propose that we will create a 5 questions questionnaire asking a combination of descriptive and casual questions like â€Å"What do you feel about Coca Cola‘s â€Å"Share a Coke† campaign†, â€Å"Have you watch the TV commercial about â€Å"Share a coke†Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Would you consider drinking Coca Cola as a trendy thing after watching the commercial ?†, â€Å"How do you feel about the â€Å"Share a Coke† concept and do you think the commercial has stated what we are trying to offer?†, â€Å"have you shared a coke with anyone after watching the commercial†. I suggest using Facebook as the platform to pass on the questionnaire to random audience that is within the demographic that we are aiming at as it is the most convenient and cost effective way because on Facebook you can set your target audience age to your desired one. Two identical questionnaires should be sent out to the same group of people who are aged between 18-25 across the campaign period to see if the audience has any perception changes over time. We could also get from the data whether or not we are reaching the right target auidences and whether or not this advertisement is doing what we want it to do. The second tool that we are going to evaluate is Instagram as Coca Cola has created it’s own hashtag for the campaign #shareacokehk and #cocacolahk and as our target audience is young adults, Instagram has been a major communication tools for the demographic. Also, Coca Cola has been posting all updates on its official Instagram page and this should be where we get all the noises from as Coca Cola has posted on all it’s advertising communication tools to share it on Instagram. Morevoer, Coca Cola has emphasized shareability over this campaign so the effective use of Instagram is notwithstanding one of the most important evaluation to do. Using Observation research to collect quantitative data would be a good way to analysis the effectiveness of this heavily used tool. I suggest for a consecutive of 30 days, researchers to go through around 100 potential hashtags posting on Instagram, starting with the two official hashtags â€Å"shareacokehk†, â€Å"cocacolahk†, cokehk†, â€Å"ilovecoke†Ã‚  then following any potential hashtags such as phases on cans†¦etc. Researchers will record daily change rate of each hashtag search, we can then compare shareability of each hashtags. We can also record likes from each post and see which personalized cans/bottles grabs the most attention. From the evaluation of the effectiveness of Instagram, we can increase shareability of the campaign (as, again it’s one of the major goal to get people talking about Coca Cola again). With the quantitative data that we got from this research, we can perhaps add more hashtags that people are likely to use and also we could use those information to amend or add in names that are in popular demands to keep the idea fresh. We could also see whether or not we are hitting on our target audiences. In Conclusion, the â€Å"Share a Coke† campaign is a clever idea. It is further proof how something so simple can still create a lot of buzz on the internet and in social settings. This â€Å"Share a Coke† campaign has fully fulfilled Fill (2006)’s definition of marketing communications. â€Å"A management process through which an organization seeks to engage with its various audiences. To accomplish this, the organization develops, presents and evaluates a series of messages which it sends to and receives from its different audiences. The objective of this process is to position the organization and its offering in the minds of particular audiences and in doing so encourage the  development of relationships that are of mutual value.† Coca Cola has proven to us that with the right marketing communication tools, an aging brand can sure be made younger again and reconnect with the you nger generation. Have you â€Å"Share a Coke† with your loved one today? Reference

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Marxist View on the Family

Marxists Views on the Family There are three Marxists views of the family, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Eli Zaretsky; they all see all institutions such as education, the media and the family as maintaining class inequality and capitalism. Marxism is a as conflict perspective as it describes a form of inequality where groups could potentially competes for power. Modern Marxist agrees that: * Families socialise children to be obedient and hardworking, which benefits capitalists; * Wealth is passed down families, perpetuating inequalities; * Families are too privatised, discouraging wage-labourers from uniting against capitalism.Community living is preferable; * A communist society in which all means of production, such as farms and factories, are collectively owned and workers receive a fair share of the profits should replace private ownership of businesses. Marxist say the family has three main functions for capitalism: 1. Inheritance of property- Marx called the earliest classle ss society ‘primitive communism’ at this stage there was no such thing as family. As society developed private property became important.Engels said the patriarchal monogamous nuclear family emerged (male dominated). In order to ensure the legitimate heir inherited from them. Marx said with the overthrow of capitalism the means of production would be owned collectively so there would be no need for the nuclear family to exist as a means of transmitting private property down the generations. 2. Ideological Function (The idea that family brainwashes us into capitalism)- Marxists say the family persuades people to think of capitalism as a fair, natural and unchangeable system.Families socialise children into thinking that hierarchy and inequality are inevitable. The family prepares people to take orders at work. Zaretsky says people are encourages to think of the family as a haven from the outside world but this is largely an illusion. As even in the privacy of our home we can subject to state control. 3. A unit of consumption- The family is an important consumer of products and has a major role in generating profits for capitalism.Advertisers urge us to ‘keep up with the Jones’. They encourage ‘pester power’ from children. Children who don’t have the latest products may be bullied. Thus Marxists see the family as performing several functions for capitalist society: the inheritance of private property, socialisation into accepting inequality, and a source of profit. According to Marxists these may benefit capitalism but not members of the family.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Causes of the Russian Revolution Part 2

Causes of the Russian Revolution Part 2 Causes Part 1. Ineffective Government The ruling elites were still mostly land owning aristocracy, but some in the civil service were landless. The elites ran the state bureaucracy and sat above the normal population. Unlike other countries the elites and the landed depended on the tsar and had never formed a counter to him. Russia had a strict set of civil service ranks, with jobs, uniforms etc., where advancement was automatic. The bureaucracy was weak and failing, losing the experience and skills needed in the modern world, but refusing to let people with those skills in. The system was a vast overlapping chaos, full of confusion, tsarist divide and rule and petty jealousy. Laws overrode other laws, the tsar able to override all. To the outside it was arbitrary, archaic, incompetent and unfair. It stopped the bureaucracy from becoming professional, modern, efficient or as a counter to as medieval looking monarch.Russia had got like this by making a choice. An influx of professional civil servants produced the Great Re forms of the 1860s, to strengthen the state through western reform after the Crimean War. This included ‘freeing’ the serfs (of a sort) and in 1864 created zemstvos, local assemblies in many areas leading to a form of self-rule sandwiched between nobles, who resented it, and peasants, who often did too. The 1860s were liberal, reforming times. They could have led Russia towards the west. It would have been costly, difficult, prolonged, but the chance was there.However, the elites were divided on a response. Reformists accepted the rule of equal law, political freedom, a middle class and opportunities for the working class. Calls for a constitution led Alexander II to order a limited one. The rivals of this progress wanted the old order, and were made up of many in the military; they demanded autocracy, strict order, nobles and church as dominant forces (and the military of course). Then Alexander II was murdered, and his son shut it down. Counter reforms, to centralize control, and strength the personal rule of the tsar followed. Alexander II’s death is the start of the Russian tragedy of the twentieth century.    The 1860s meant Russia had people who had tasted reform, lost it and looked for†¦ revolution.Imperial government ran out below the eighty nine provincial capitals. Below that peasants ran it their own way, alien to the elites above. Localities were under governed and the old regime was not a hyper powerful all seeing oppression. Old government was absent and out of touch, with a small number of police, state officials, who were co-opted for more and more by the state as there wasn’t anything else (for instant checking roads). Russia had a small tax system, bad communications, small middle class, and a serfdom which ended with the landowner in charge still. Only very slowly was the Tsar’s government meeting the new civilians.Zemstvos, run by locals, became key. The state rested on landowning nobles, but they were in decline post emancipation, and used these small local committees to defend themselves against industrializing and state government. Up to 1905 this was a liberal movement pushing for safeguards and provincial society, e.g. peasant versus landowner, calling for more local power, a Russian parliament, a constitution. The provincial nobility were the early revolutionaries, not workers. Alienated Military The Russian military was full of tensions against the Tsar, despite it supposedly being the man’s biggest supporter. Firstly it kept losing (Crimea, Turkey, Japan) and this was blamed on the government: military expenditure declined. As industrialization was not as advanced in the west, so Russia became poorly trained, equipped and supplied in the new methods and lost. The soldiers and self-aware officers were being demoralized. Russian soldiers were sworn to the Tsar, not the state. History seeped into all aspects of the Russian court and they obsessed over little details like buttons, not fixing a feudal army lost in a modern world.Also, the army was being used more and more to support the provincial governors in suppressing revolts: despite the facts much of the lower ranks were peasants too. The army began to fracture over demand to stop civilians. That was before the condition of the army itself where people were seen as serfs, sub civilian slaves by officers. In 1917, ma ny soldiers wanted a reform of the army as much as of the government. Above them were a group of new professional military men who saw the faults through the system, from trench technique to supply of arms, and demanded effective reform. They saw the court and the tsar as stopping it. They turned to the Duma as an outlet, beginning a relationship which would change Russian in early 1917. The Tsar was losing the support of his talented men. An Out of Touch Church The Russians were involved in a foundation myth of being at one with and defending the Orthodox Church and orthodox Russia, which began at the very start of the state. In the 1900s this was stressed this over and over. The Tsar as political-religious figure was unlike anywhere in the west and he or she could damn with the church as well as destroy with laws. The church was vital for controlling the mostly illiterate peasants, and priests had to preach obedience to the Tsar and report objections to police and to state. They allied easily with the last two Tsars, who wanted a return to medieval times.But industrialization was pulling peasants into secular cities, where churches and priests lagged behind the vast growth. The church did not adapt to urban life and a growing number of priests called for reform of it all (and the state too). Liberal clergy realized reform of church only possible with a move away from the tsar. Socialism was what answered the workers new needs, not old Chri stianity. Peasants not exactly enamored of priests and their actions harked to a pagan time, and many priests were underpaid and grasping. A Politicized Civil Society By the 1890s, Russia had developed an educated, political culture among a group of people who were not yet numerous enough to truly be called a Middle Class, but who were forming between the aristocracy and the peasants / workers. This group were part of a ‘civil society’ which sent their youth to be students, read newspapers, and looked towards serving the public rather than the Tsar. Largely liberal, the events of a severe famine in the early 1890s both politicized and radicalized them, as their collective action outlined them to them both how ineffective the Tsarist government now was, and how much they could achieve if they were allowed to unite. The members of the zemstvo’s were chief among these. As the Tsar refused to meet their demands, so many of this social sphere turned against him and his government. Nationalism Nationalism came to Russia at the end of the nineteenth century and neither Tsars government nor liberal opposition could cope with it. It was the socialists who pushed regional independence, and socialist-nationalists who did best among the different nationalists. Some nationalists wanted to stay in the Russian empire but get greater power; the Tsar inflamed this by stamping on it and Russifying, turning cultural movements into fierce political opposition. Tsars had always Russified but it was now much worse Repression and Revolutionaries The Decembrist uprising of 1825 triggered a series of reactions in Tsar Nicholas I, including the creation of a police state. Censorship was combined with the ‘Third Section’, a group of investigators looking into acts and thoughts against the state, which could exile to Siberia suspects, not just convicted of any transgression, but just suspected of it. In 1881 the Third Section became the Okhranka, a secret police fighting a war using agents everywhere, even pretending to be revolutionaries. If you want to know how the Bolsheviks expanded their police state, the line started here.The revolutionaries of the period had been in harsh Tsarist prisons, hardened into extremism, the weak falling away. They started as intellectuals of Russia, a class of readers, thinkers and believers, and were turned into something colder and dark. These derived from the Decembrists of the 1820s, their first opponents and revolutionaries of the new order in Russia, and inspired intellectuals in succeeding generations. Rejected and attacked, they reacted by turning to violence and dreams of violent struggle. A study of terrorism in the twenty first century finds this pattern repeated. A warning was there. The fact that western ideas which had leaked into Russia ran into the new censorship meant they tended to be distorted into powerful dogma rather than argued into pieces like the rest. The revolutionaries looked to the people, who they were usually born above, as the ideal, and the state, who they reviled, with guilt driven anger. But the intellectuals had no real concept of peasants, just a dream of the people, an abstraction that led Lenin and company to authoritarianism.Calls for a small group of revolutionaries to seize power and create a revolutionary dictatorship to in turn create a socialist society (including removing enemies) were around far before the 1910s, and the 1860s were a golden age for such ideas; now they were violent and hateful. They didn’t have to choose Marxism. Many didn’t at first. Born in 1872, Marx’s Capital was cleared by their Russian censor as they though to too hard to understand to be dangerous, and about an industrial state Russia didn’t have. They were terribly wrong, and it was an instant hit, the fad of its day – the intelligentsia had just seen one popular movement fail, so they turned to Marx as a new hope. No more populism and peasants, but urban workers, closer and understandable. Marx seemed to be sensible, logical science, not dogma, modern and western.One young man, Lenin, was thrown into a new orbit, away from being a lawyer and into being a revolutionary, when his older brother was executed for terrorism. Lenin was drawn into rebellion and expelled from university. He was a fully blown revolutionary derived from other groups in Russia’s history already when he first encountered Marx, and he rewrote Marx for Russia, not the other way round.   Lenin accepted the ideas of the Russian Marxist leader Plekhanov, and they would recruit the urban workers by involving them in strikes for better rights. As ‘legal Marxists’ pushed a peaceful agenda, Lenin and others reacted with a commitment to revolution and creating a counter Tsarist party, strictly organised. They created the newspaper Iskra (the Spark) as a mouthpiece to command the members. The editors were the First Soviet of the Social Democratic Party, including Lenin. He wrote What Is To Be Done? (1902), a hectoring, violent work that set out the party. The Social Democrats split into two groups, the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, at the second Party Congress in 1903. Lenin’s dictatorial approach pushed the split. Lenin was a centraliser who distrusted the people to get it right, an anti-democrat, and he was a Bolshevik whereas the Mensheviks were prepared to work with the middle classes. World War 1 Was the Catalyst The First World War provided the catalyst for Russia’s revolutionary year of 1917. The war itself went badly from the start, prompting the Tsar to take personal charge in 1915, a decision which placed the full responsibility for the next years of failure on his shoulders. As demand for ever more soldiers increased, the peasant population grew angry as young men and horses, both essential for the war, were taken away, reducing the amount they could grow and damaging their standard of living. Russia’s most successful farms suddenly found their labour and material removed for the war, and the less successful peasants became ever more concerned with self-sufficiency, and even less concerned with selling a surplus, than ever before.Inflation occurred and prices rose, so hunger became endemic. In the cities, workers found themselves unable to afford the high prices, and any attempt to agitate for better wages, usually in the form of strikes, saw them branded as disloyal to Ru ssia, disaffecting them further. The transport system ground to a halt due to failures and poor management, halting the movement of military supplies and food. Meanwhile soldiers on leave explained how poorly supplied the army was, and bought first hand accounts of the failure at the front. These soldiers, and the high command who had previously supported the Tsar, now believed he had failed them.An increasingly desperate government turned to using the military to curb the strikers, causing mass protest and troop mutinies in the cities as soldiers refused to open fire. A revolution had begun.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Life of Al Capone essays

Life of Al Capone essays Imagine a city where gangster ruled. In the 1920s, Chicago was a town known for being controlled by its criminal element. Half of the police force was paid by mob rulers; illegal alcohol was flowing free in the streets during the Prohibition Era; and the fire of tommy guns was a familiar sound to everyone who lived in downtown Chicago. In the windy city, Al Capone was the epitome of a gangster whose lifestyle involved crime, prostitution, and bootlegged alcohol. In his youth, Al Capone already started a life of crime which led to his being a notorious gangster as an adult; however, it was not his violence but his lifestyle that brought about his demise. As a child, Al started to become involved with some gang-related activities and also met some people that helped develop a lifestyle that shaped the way he would live. Al Capone came from a humble beginning. Gabriele Capone, a barber, and Teresina Raiola, a seamstress, were both born in Naples, Italy, where they were married. (Al Capone) They had three children in Italy, but desired a better life for their family. They decided to move to America, the land of the free. Once, in America they made their home in Brooklyn, New York. This is where their fourth son, Alphonse Capone, was born on January 17, 1899. Though living in poverty, their parents provided a decent standard of living for their children. When Capone was old enough to start school Als parents sent him to a public school in Brooklyn. Later he dropped out at the age of fourteen due to a fight with his teacher and the schools principal. Now, Capone had plenty of free time on his hands. Family members and friend s noticed that Al was very wise when it came to living on the streets of New York. He had a clever and somewhat ingenious mind when it came to life on the street. He had what most people called street smarts. Now that Capone was spending more time on the streets, he starte...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Beliefs About Students Essay Example for Free

Beliefs About Students Essay It is undeniable that the beliefs about students and education have a profound impact on what is taught and how it is taught, just as the beliefs about life have a profound impact on how individuals live their lives. Educational beliefs are revised and refined and over time becomes stronger as they seem to serve us well and prove to be true. Thus, these beliefs ultimately become our philosophy of education. It is possible that every student that enters a classroom can succeed. However, in order for them to accomplish this, teaching should be student centered. Students should be encouraged to understand and appreciate their uniqueness and to be accountable for their learning and behavior. According to Ornstein and Hunkins (2004) Perennialism relies on the past; especially the past asserted by agreed-on universal knowledge and cherished values. Dunn (2005) also agreed that Perennialism is the oldest educational philosophy and is therefore traditional. It is believed that students are vessels to be filled and disciplined in the proven strategies of the past. This philosophy is supported by the realist philosopher John Locke, who was of the belief that at birth the mind is a blank sheet of paper on which the teacher could write knowledge (Tabula Rasa). According to the essentialist viewpoint, there are certain basic or essential knowledge, skills and understandings that students should master in order to function successfully in the society. These are reading, writing, computing and in today’s world, computer skills. Plato, who was the father of idealism, believed that both male and female are equal and should be educated equally. Therefore, the curriculum is the same for everyone and planning to execution of lessons are dominated by the teacher. However, one should not forget that these beliefs are teacher centered and tend to be more authoritarian and conservative and emphasize only the values and knowledge that have survived through time. Learning occurs through experience, Therefore students should be allowed to develop cognitively through experimentation and to reach their own personal potential instead of being shaped into a specific mould. Dunn (2005) cited Immanuel Kant who agreed that knowledge is rooted in the experience of mankind and can only be achieved by an active and exploratory mind, rather than one that is passive and receptive. Carl Rogers also believed in experiential learning. He believed that unlike academic knowledge, experiential knowledge is required to meet the needs of the learner in order to complete important real-life tasks such as learning to drive a car. Every student is different, no single set of learning outcomes is appropriate for all students. Thus a set curriculum will not be suitable for all. Students should be able to determine what they need to study with the guidance of the teacher. This will help them to arrive at their own understandings. Jean Sartre, a leader of existentialism believed that man’s responsibility is vested in man himself. He further stated that people are entitled to be human with dignity and is a human only when he or she is entirely free and accepts responsibility for his freedom. You may be led to believe that students are blank slates and learn based on mainly academic knowledge that has been tried, tested and proven and that all humans are equal and should be educated equally. However, do not ignore the fact that students are taking to the classroom, their own ideas and materials rather than receiving material in class as it is given. Students restructure the new information to fit into their own cognitive frameworks. In this manner, they actively and individually construct their own knowledge. They also are different thus, the same rigorous curriculum will not work for all students. From these facts one may conclude that in order to help students reach their full potential and gain the knowledge and skills that they will require in their daily lives as a democratic citizen of our society, the student centered approach to how students learn must be practiced. Therefore it is recommended that teachers facilitate students instead of being fountains of wisdom. The teacher should help students in their pursuit for knowledge and also help them acquire the communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills which will enable them to be life-long learners. Beliefs About Students. (2018, Oct 24).

Friday, October 18, 2019

International Crime Witness Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International Crime Witness - Assignment Example The country follows a bicameral system in terms of political domain. The responsibilities of the central government and state are segregated apparently. The federal government controls the legal functions of the entire nations through legal policies and numerous regulations (Tatsachen, 2014). Germany is the largest among of the economies in the European Union (EU). A constant increase in GDP has been witnessed by the country in the recent past. It is considered as a global hub of business sector with special inclusion of the automobile sector. A considerable percentage of the employment is provided by the SMEs (Tatsachen, 2014). Regulations for the criminal act in Germany are deemed to be quite certain. However, with the passage of time, certain amendments have been brought in the legal structure, which has further provided systematic rules for contemplating the witnesses in crime scenes. As per Subsection 6 of the Criminal Code, a witness is seen as a contributor towards the preventer of any particular offence or crime. The regulation depicts that the primary responsibility of any witness is to stop crime voluntarily in the first place. The Criminal Code of Germany also depicts that crime witness needs to voluntarily depict his/her knowledge about the crime to the concerned authorities as early as possible so that proper measures can be taken. However, this particular aspect of the law is only limited towards witness of the criminal offence and not for any other legal scenario. Article 5 of the Principal Witness Act is also an important decree that specifically determines the process followed to deal with t he criminal witness. As per this particular code of the German criminal law, a witness should not intend to misguide the case with their information or else they might be liable to get imprisonment of 1 year (Hilger, n.d.). Criminal suspects in the US are liable to enjoy certain individual rights. As per the fifth amendment of the federal law of the US, all criminal defendants will have the right to get free trial along with certain rights relevant to search and seizure.     Ã‚  

Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 5

Research Paper Example In order to improve the security as well as reducing police workload at the same time, new technological innovations have come up that are capable of improving the performance of the police. These technologies have expanded considerably and added reinforcement to frontline officers. According to statistics from the 2007 survey conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the local police departments use various technologies for different law enforcement processes. In turn, these technologies have reduced the workload of police and effort used in day-to-day activities. For instance, the criminal investigation uses 60% of technology, crime mapping and analysis (100%), dispatch (49%), information sharing (50%), and record management (79%). In addition, 90% of departments serving over 250,000 people use fingerprinting technology and two-thirds also reported to be regularly utilizing video cameras for speed, CCTV, and those in patrol cars (Roberts). The emergence of fingerprinting and crime laboratories between 1900 and 1920 has by far increased the capacity for the police to solve crimes and incarcerate the guilty offenders. Later in the years, this is what emerged to be the core of forensics (McElreath et al. 299). The driving force for the introduction of forensics was to foresee justice prevail because before, the judicial proceedings were just based on evidence coming from victim statements and coerced confessions. Forensics was the better option after jurists and criminologists were convinced that it had standards of neutrality and objectivity. In addition, forensics could add fairness and precision to investigations as a result scientists and doctors had a partnership with the police so that they could integrate solving crimes and science (McElreath et al., 300). Despite forensic taking charge a bit slowly, most police departments in the US began appreciating the results it brought

Funding the rising cost of U.S health care Assignment

Funding the rising cost of U.S health care - Assignment Example The healthcare delivery system of the US has been voluntarily involved in response to the considerations regarding the accessibility, quality, along with cost of the health insurance services (Jones & Bartlett Publishers LLC, 2008). However, the continuous rising of healthcare costs has long been witnessed by the demographic groups can be regarded as a phenomenal concern of the country. Accessibility to the healthcare services has long been recognized as a key issue in the US healthcare system. Both the government and non-government insurance agencies are recognized to focus on developing their offerings in order to accomplish a significant growth for their institutions. The consolidation amidst the health insurance service providers in the nation, have been raising issues associated with accessibility due to their unabatedly increasing price and availability of quality based service facilities (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014). The following figure details about the overall health in surance coverage of the total US population. With regard to the above statistics, it is affirmed that the healthcare sector of the US has been undergoing an unsustainable condition due to the rising cost of healthcare services provided by both public and private health insurance institutions (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013; Shi, 2012). Medicare services provided by the institutions are likely to involve higher pricing strategies that often raise major issues for the population with minimum or considerably less income level. The Census Bureau in the year 2011 reported that more than 36% of US households living below poverty line were not insured. With reference to the total spending on healthcare and its insurance beneficiaries, the US spends approximately USD 2 trillion every year that can be apparently identified to be higher than other countries of the world (Wilper et al., 2009). The

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Several Medical Record Formats at the Healthy Facility Record Assignment

Several Medical Record Formats at the Healthy Facility Record - Assignment Example For instance, all agencies which are owned by the local government are supposed to keep a defined general retention and disposition schedule. The retention policy should give a guideline on how the records should be retained by all kinds of EMS services. All EMS agencies are supposed to have the policy which shall describe all the procedures which are in compliance with the retention of records required. The policy should also describe the time length needed to document the records. Additionally, the policy should have described well how the document will be stored, procedures for retrieving the stored document and how the records will be protected. The following are the physical/ technical measures which are used to secure HIM department; both internal and external departments should be taught the importance of computer security, one should ensure that all other staffs take seriously security he or she does, ensure that all the information in the system components are catalogued because there are no two medical practices which have the same information, one should be ready for the disaster even before it has struck this means there should be an alternative method of backing up all the information in the system. Lastly, one should ensure that all his or her communications and network safeguards are robust and intact. The following are the both physical and technical measures which should used to secure health records; there should be facility access controls such as alarms and locks, there should be proper policies in the workstation to make sure that there is proper access and use workstations, workstation security measures, such as computer privacy filters and cable locks, there should be a good plan on how to restore lost data. There several areas in HIM those are outsourced. These areas are; contractors and consultants, data technicians, and also programmers.  Ã‚  

Women in general management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Women in general management - Essay Example   The Goodpaster article tries to outline some of the ethical issues that general managers confront in their location and the organizations. The issue of affirmative action is very common with many Managers, and this leaves them in an awkward position due to pressure emanating from within and outside the organization. Because of this, the article notes that managers need a more orderly way of thinking through the moral implications of policy decision. The above mission statement shows that women are capable of delivering given the favourable atmosphere. However, many societies and corporate environment don’t allow women to scale higher because of the negative perception of, â€Å"they can’t do." This has for over the decades subordinated the position of women in the corporate environment and gave men the chance to enjoy the opportunities. A good manager is one who weighs the available options and bases the actions on the policies that the organization has set. Simila rly, the actions that a manager resorts to must comply with the set laws such as ensuring affirmative action and implementing where it is due. Doing this will ensure that the decision passed by the general manager respects the rights of others, keeps promises and contracts, obeys laws, are fair and prevents harming others.Additionally, general managers can ensure they overcome the dilemma that makes them discriminate against women in leadership by following the three avenues of critical thinking as discussed in Goodpaster article.   

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Funding the rising cost of U.S health care Assignment

Funding the rising cost of U.S health care - Assignment Example The healthcare delivery system of the US has been voluntarily involved in response to the considerations regarding the accessibility, quality, along with cost of the health insurance services (Jones & Bartlett Publishers LLC, 2008). However, the continuous rising of healthcare costs has long been witnessed by the demographic groups can be regarded as a phenomenal concern of the country. Accessibility to the healthcare services has long been recognized as a key issue in the US healthcare system. Both the government and non-government insurance agencies are recognized to focus on developing their offerings in order to accomplish a significant growth for their institutions. The consolidation amidst the health insurance service providers in the nation, have been raising issues associated with accessibility due to their unabatedly increasing price and availability of quality based service facilities (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014). The following figure details about the overall health in surance coverage of the total US population. With regard to the above statistics, it is affirmed that the healthcare sector of the US has been undergoing an unsustainable condition due to the rising cost of healthcare services provided by both public and private health insurance institutions (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013; Shi, 2012). Medicare services provided by the institutions are likely to involve higher pricing strategies that often raise major issues for the population with minimum or considerably less income level. The Census Bureau in the year 2011 reported that more than 36% of US households living below poverty line were not insured. With reference to the total spending on healthcare and its insurance beneficiaries, the US spends approximately USD 2 trillion every year that can be apparently identified to be higher than other countries of the world (Wilper et al., 2009). The

Women in general management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Women in general management - Essay Example   The Goodpaster article tries to outline some of the ethical issues that general managers confront in their location and the organizations. The issue of affirmative action is very common with many Managers, and this leaves them in an awkward position due to pressure emanating from within and outside the organization. Because of this, the article notes that managers need a more orderly way of thinking through the moral implications of policy decision. The above mission statement shows that women are capable of delivering given the favourable atmosphere. However, many societies and corporate environment don’t allow women to scale higher because of the negative perception of, â€Å"they can’t do." This has for over the decades subordinated the position of women in the corporate environment and gave men the chance to enjoy the opportunities. A good manager is one who weighs the available options and bases the actions on the policies that the organization has set. Simila rly, the actions that a manager resorts to must comply with the set laws such as ensuring affirmative action and implementing where it is due. Doing this will ensure that the decision passed by the general manager respects the rights of others, keeps promises and contracts, obeys laws, are fair and prevents harming others.Additionally, general managers can ensure they overcome the dilemma that makes them discriminate against women in leadership by following the three avenues of critical thinking as discussed in Goodpaster article.   

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

IT Case Study Essay Example for Free

IT Case Study Essay The Widget Wonders distribution center is the worldwide leader in widgets. Which theyre in the process of building a state of art facility to manufacture new generation of widgets. The SNHUConsulting group leads the way of consulting in information technology. SNHUConsulting has been hired to consult on new hardware that will last for at least the next three years for the different apartments. The sales department consists of 50 employees that requires mobility with access to the companys resources while in the field with customers and presenting at sales meeting and conferences. The manufacturing department will have 45 employees and will need hardware that support word processing and spreadsheet programs and internet capable. The inventory control department will have 30 employees who would need mobility hardware as well with power to access database systems. The research and development department will consist of 20 employees thats need hardware with graphics design and CAD programs. The MIS will consist of 5 employees who will need additional processors and memory requirements to support administration tasks. My recommendations for the sales department for mobility purposes is notebooks, smartphones, and tablets for visiting customers. For bigger presentations a digital projector that is interactive, with laser pointers that allows the sales team to talk and click on the computer to dictate its pace. Also USB drives that holds a large amount of storage that the sales team can upload from any computer systems. For the manufacturing department my recommendation are the new generation computer systems that support multi servers for the manufacturing needs. The manufacturing department will also need printers and connectivity capability to the internet as an additional resource tool to complete their job functions. The inventory department will need tablets with 32 or more GB of storage with direct access to the companys database systems. The research and development department needs  notebooks, printers, and a docking station for automated systems backing up. Hardware that is able to compare and contrast data for the development of the company. The MIS department would need computer systems that is compatible with graphic adapters. Also the computer systems will have a multimedia screen capability for administrating tasks. In conclusion, the hardware that would be required for each department will have the durability and warranty that will last the company for at least 3 years, which will then require the company to revisit their strategic plan for any updates as needed. In purchasing the hardware, the company will included warranty and service agreement with the vendor to assist in any maintenance issues that may arrived regarding any of the hardware purchased. The hardware will have the most advance technology needed for each department efficient in their job duties.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Mathematical Mystery Behind Sudoku Mathematics Essay

The Mathematical Mystery Behind Sudoku Mathematics Essay Puzzle games can be very enjoyable and is popular amongst kids as well as adults. Many of you may know the game Sudoku; where by the goal of the game is to fill in the remaining empty cells with each number from 1-9 appearing no more than once from each column, each row and each of the nine sub-grids. Sudoku is a type of logic-based numerical puzzle game that has a unique solution once completed. The most common form of a Sudoku is constructed as a 99 grid with nine 33 sub-grids and is primarily partially completed. Sudoku has become appealing among puzzle enthusiasts and involves complex thinking and practice. Available daily in newspapers, mobiles and many more, this addictive and brain-teasing puzzle game has become one of the most popular games to play since the time of the Rubiks cube. This dissertation discusses the mathematical side involved in Sudoku. There is no mathematics in actually solving a Sudoku but more of how it is used from a creators side. The 99 grid will be considered in the majority of the report; however a glimpse into other size grids will be discussed briefly also known as variants. Mathematicians have been questioning How many unique solutions are there in a Sudoku? Essentially meaning what are the possible ways of filling in an empty Sudoku grid so that each row, column and sub-grid contains the numbers 1 through 9. Your first thought of an answer may be a couple of thousands, but as you understand the concepts behind a Sudoku, you begin to grasp a whole new aspect. Combinatorics and permutation group theory are largely interwoven with analysing Sudoku. For that reason, I aim to explore these theories and understand how it applies to the methods of enumerating Sudoku grids. In particular I will be looking at Felgenhauer and Jarviss approach to enumerating all possible Sudoku grids where they employ several mathematical concepts. Furthermore I will uncover the importance of Latin squares and its use of constructing Sudokus. There are many constraints in regards to when are similar solutions considered different such as solutions of similar structure, symmetry etc. Preserving symmetries are known as relabeling symbols, band permutations, reflection, transposition and rotation. Burnsides Lemma theorem is one of their techniques in computing the number of essentially different solutions. Many difficult problems are of the type called nondeterministic-polynomial known as an NP-complete problem. This will direct me onto the debate on whether Sudoku is an NP-complete problem. Sudokus can take many forms and shapes. These are called Sudoku variants and consist of rectangular regions, Sudokus with a large region having no clues (numbers), an empty row, column or sub-grid and many more! Here I will research the logic behind irregular Sudokus as well as examining any occurring patterns or whether it has occurred by chance. 1.2 Latin squares and Sudoku Sudoku is also a special case of Latin squares. The Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler made many fundamental discoveries during 1782 including Latin squares. A Latin square is an N x N matrix where by a set of N characters are arranged such that each row and column contains one of each character. This is also in the case of a Sudoku, when complete, with an additional constraint that the nine sub-grids must hold the numbers 1-9. A reduction can be made to any Latin square by permuting the rows and columns. This arrangement is an aspect of combinatorics and is most commonly referred to as enumeration. Enumerative combinatorics is a classic area of Combinatorics and involves counting the number of infinite class of finite sets. Counting combinations and counting permutations are two of the most common forms. The number of valid Latin squares is known to be approximately 5.525 x 10 ²Ãƒ ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ ·. Write about Colbourns proof 1.3 Combinatorics and Permutation group theory Combinations and permutations have slightly different meaning. Combinations are the number of different ways of selecting n objects from a set but the order of events is not important. From a set of 3 objects, lets call these 1, 2 and 3. If for example I was asked to pick the number of ways of selecting 2 objects out of the 3, there would be three combinations 12, 23 and 13. 12 = 21 since the order of each pair is not important. A permutation on the other hand does consider the position. Therefore if I was to use the above example, there would be six permutations. A simpler way to calculate a larger set would be to use formula 1: Formula 1. = = Where is the combination formula, is the permutation formula, n is the total number of objects and r is the number to be arranged Both methods are one way of computing the number of possible Sudoku solutions and this will be looked at later in the report. Chapter 2 Enumerating possible Sudoku solutions 2.1 Distinct Sudoku solutions There are many approaches to enumerating possible Sudoku solutions. To enumerate every possible Sudoku solution, a Sudoku differs from another if they are not identical. Thus all solutions will be consider unless they are like for like. Felgenhauer and Jarvis was the first to enumerate the Sudoku grid solutions directly in 2005. There approach was to analyze the permutations of the top row used in valid solutions. Their knowledge of the complexity in computing the number of Latin squares has made them aware of how they should go about getting an answer with fewer computations. Hence by using relabeling this could shorten the number of counts. To make it easier, each sub-grid is given an abbreviation seen in figure 3. B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 Figure 1. Abbreviated sub-grid with top band (Felgenhauer and Jarvis, 2006) Firstly they consider every solution to filling in blocks B2, B3, given that B1 is in standard form. To work out every possible way of arranging B1 on its own would essentially be computing the number of permutations of 9 symbols. There are 9! of filling in B1. The main operation they use is called relabeling. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 2. B1 in standard form (Felgenhauer and Jarvis, 2006) Felgenhauer and Jarvis have found that B2 and B3 is the same as the transpose of B2 and B3. Therefore the number of ways of arranging B1, B2 and B3 and B1, B2 and B3 to a complete grid is equally the same. This means that computing one set of possibilities will cut down the number of solutions. Inevitably, there are few pairs of B2 and B3 that needs to be worked out and as well as using reduction the number of possibilities for the top band of a Sudoku grid is 9! x 2612736 = 948109639680. The next section involves brute force computation. As running through all 2612736 possibilities would be exceedingly tedious for B2 and B3, Felgenhauer and Jarvis attempts to identify configurations of the numbers in these blocks which give the same number of ways of completing to a full grid. This in return, will cut down the number possibilities. Permuting B2 and B3 in every way such that the result gives a unique solution will preserve the number of complete grids. This is the same for B5 and B6, and B8 and B9. However this changes B1 from its standard form, so an additional relabeling of B1 needs to be performed. Another approach to reducing the number of possibilities is to permute the columns in each block and permute the rows of any block. Reducing the number of possible ways by permuting. Lexicographical reduction Permutation reduction Column reduction As a result of these methods, Felgenhauer and Jarvis have found that there are approximately 6670903752021072936960 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‹â€  6.671 x 10 ²Ã‚ ¹ Sudoku solutions. In light of this result, there are fewer solutions than Latin squares due to the fact that there is that extra restriction of 9 sub-grids. That being said, there will be no shortage of Sudoku puzzles any time soon. Verification of this result has been confirmed by several other mathematicians Ed Russell to be more precise. 2.2 Essentially different Sudoku grids Whether symmetrical Sudoku grids are considered as two separate solutions is another method of enumerating the possible solutions. In this case, the only solutions are ones that are essentially different. Lets say two Sudoku grids are equivalent if one is a transformation of the other by applying any number of symmetries. If however, no such chain of symmetries can occur between two grids, it is essentially different. Two Sudoku grids are the same provided the first grid can be converted to the second by applying some sort of symmetry. For instance, take figure 3 4 below; the set of 3s in the first grid can be interchanged by the placements of the set of 1s, effectively producing the second grid. 1 7 2 8 6 4 9 3 5 4 9 3 5 1 7 2 8 6 6 5 8 2 9 3 1 7 4 2 4 7 3 5 9 6 1 8 8 6 5 1 7 2 3 4 9 3 1 9 4 8 6 5 2 7 5 8 6 7 2 1 4 9 3 9 2 4 6 3 8 7 5 1 7 3 1 9 4 5 8 6 2 Figure 3. Valid Sudoku grid 3 7 2 8 6 4 9 1 5 4 9 1 5 3 7 2 8 6 6 5 8 2 9 1 3 7 4 2 4 7 1 5 9 6 3 8 8 6 5 3 7 2 1 4 9 1 3 9 4 8 6 5 2 7 5 8 6 7 2 3 4 9 1 9 2 4 6 1 8 7 5 3 7 1 3 9 4 5 8 6 2 Figure 4. Another valid Sudoku grid from Figure 1 As well as this, a solution is said to be the same as another if any two columns or rows are swapped. The first column and second column in figure 3 can be exchanged to give figure 5. The two solutions are said to be symmetrical because the transformation still produces a valid Sudoku grid. 7 3 2 8 6 4 9 1 5 9 4 1 5 3 7 2 8 6 5 6 8 2 9 1 3 7 4 4 2 7 1 5 9 6 3 8 6 8 5 3 7 2 1 4 9 3 1 9 4 8 6 5 2 7 8 5 6 7 2 3 4 9 1 2 9 4 6 1 8 7 5 3 1 7 3 9 4 5 8 6 2 Figure 5. First and second column swapped from Figure 1. Another form of symmetries includes rotational grids. A rotation of Figure 3 by 90 degrees generates a new valid Sudoku grid shown in Figure 6. 7 9 5 3 8 2 6 4 1 3 2 8 1 6 4 5 9 7 1 4 6 9 5 7 8 3 2 9 6 7 4 1 3 2 5 8 4 3 2 8 7 5 9 1 6 5 8 1 6 2 9 3 7 4 8 7 4 5 3 6 1 2 9 6 5 9 2 4 1 7 8 3 2 1 3 7 9 8 4 6 5 Figure 6. Rotational of 90 degrees from figure 1 These operations performed above maintain the property of it being valid and this is known as symmetries of a grid. When an object is subject to these operations, certain properties are preserved. An example would be if one performs symmetry on to a Sudoku grid and repeats this operation once more, the final transformation is itself symmetric. In addition a symmetrical object can be transformed back to its original state by another form of symmetry. Performing several symmetries on a Sudoku grid can also be achieved by grouping its neighbouring pair. So the first symmetry can be paired with the second or the second can be paired with the third and so on. The resulting transformation is nevertheless the same either way. From these properties, it is inevitable to say that the set of symmetries form a group of any Sudoku grid. A group is a set G if it satisfies the following properties: CLOSURE If f and g are elements of G, then f ·g is also an element of G. ASSOCIATIVITY If f, g, and h are elements of G, then f ·(g ·h)=(f ·g) ·h must satisfy. IDENTITY ELEMENT There is an element e in G such that g ·e=e ·g=g for all g in G. INVERSE For any element g of G, there is another element d of G such that g ·d=d ·g=e, where e is the identity element. (The element d = g-1.) The symmetry group is thus generated by the transformations of: re-labelling the nine digits, permuting the three stacks (3 vertical blocks of a Sudoku), permuting the three bands (3 horizontal blocks of a Sudoku), permuting the three columns within a stack, permuting the three rows within a band, and any reflection or rotation. Any two transformations can be merged to shape other elements and together they comprise of the symmetry group G. Given that any element of G can be mapped so that it takes one grid to another, we can say that the set of valid Sudoku grids has a finite number of elements. Thus G has finitely many symmetries. The association between symmetrical Sudoku grids are in fact an equivalence relation and satisfies the following three properties: for grids A, B and C in set G Reflexivity A = A Symmetry If A = B then B = A Transitivity If A = B and B = C then A = C Let A be any valid Sudoku grid, we must consider all the grids that are equivalent to a valid Sudoku grid A. To do this, we firstly have to group together grids that are essentially the same so that we can partition the set of grids. This will break the set of Sudoku grids into subsets, with groups that contain no relating elements within each other. The term subset can be called equivalence classes. This can also be referred to as X/G. In any equivalence class, there are elements that are equivalent to each other by symmetry. The total number of elements in X/G is equal to the number of essential Sudoku grids. To enumerate all essential Sudoku grids, we shall look at all the symmetries neglecting the re-labelling of the nine digits for the time being. The number of distinct symmetries founded by Russell and Jarvis (2006) is said to contain 3359232 (pg 4). In this finite group H, we need to find the average number of grids fixed by an element of H, up to re-labelling. Next we need to verify the number of fixed points of all elements in H. Russell and Jarvis have found that there are 275 classes of symmetries using a software package called GAP. It is interesting to note that some of the elements in H contain equivalent fixed grids. In other words, it is now easier to work out as each of the classes contains one symmetry. However a number of symmetries in H have no fixed points. Subsequently, it is not necessary to calculate the number of fixed grids for those that have no fixed points. That being said, there are only 27 out of 275 classes that contain fixed points, meaning fewer computation s. Rotman. J. J (1995) demonstrate that if X is a finite G-set and |X/G| is the number of G-orbits of X, then Formula 2 holds where, for gцG, X is the number of xцX fixed by g (pg 58-61). Using this notion, we have established that the number of valid Sudoku grids is of a finite set and X/G is the number of essentially different Sudoku grids, so we can obtain the number of essentially different Sudoku grids by using the Burnside Lemma Theorem. Formula 2. Burnside Lemma Theorem (Rotman, 1995) Burnside Lemma Theorem is a useful tool when dealing with symmetry with a set of countable objects. When used to enumerate the essentially different Sudoku grid, the set of equivalent grids form an orbit of the symmetric group. The number orbits are essentially the number of different grid solutions. This may sound slightly (ALOT) trickier to compute, nonetheless Russell and Jarvis have shown that the number of essentially different Sudoku grids is 5,472,730,538 with the implementation of Burnsides Lemma Theorem. Chapter 3 Nondeterministic polynomials 3.1 NP-complete and Sudoku Sudokus may relate to a variety of problems, in particularly, whether Sudoku is an NP-complete problem. It is known that NP-complete problems are one of the most complicated cases in NP, also referred to as nondeterministic-polynomial. Its rival, P problems relates to NP as both being in the same complexity class. Mathematicians have yet to solve whether NP-complete problems can be solved in polynomial time or more commonly whether P = NP. Consequently being one of the greatest unsolved mathematical problems. The majority of computer scientists believe that P à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚   NP, as a result would mean that NP-complete problems are significantly trickier to compute than to verify. Unfortunately, nobody has yet found an efficient algorithm, not even with the use of computers available today. A problem is said to be NP-complete when its solution can be proved in polynomial time. And if that problem can be solved in polynomial time, all problems in NP can be solved too. An interesting characteristic of NP-complete problems is that the time frame to solve the problem increases rapidly as the size of the problem gets larger. If that is the case and Sudokus are NP-complete, solving a Sudoku of higher order (say 17 ² x 17 ²) will become increasingly challenging algorithmically then the standard 3 ² x 3 ² version were talking trillions of years. It has been shown that Sudoku does belong to the category of NPC problems by Takayuki Yato of the Univeristy of Tokyo (2003). An exchange for the notation ASP-completeness (shorthand for Another solution problem), led the proof of NP-completeness of ASP. Their proof uses reduction in order to obtain the required polynomial-time ASP from the problem of Latin squares by Colbourn (1984) who has verified, the NP-completeness of ASP of Latin square completion Another accountable source by Provan states that, It is known that solving general-sized Sudoku puzzles is NP-hard, even for square grids with blocks consisting of the sets of rows and columns (Latin Squares) or for p2 x p2 grids with blocks consisting of rows, columns, and the p2 partitioned p x p subsquares. Mathematical programmes such as the 0-1 linear programming and the knapsack problems are also cases of NP-complete problems. A full list of other problems that are NP-complete can be found in Garey and Johnson (1979). Chapter 4 Sudoku Variants 4.1 Variation The classic form of a 99 Sudoku are polyominoes. There are other variations of Sudokus that can be applied to the rules of Sudoku. There are puzzles of the size 66 with 23 regions or a 1212 grid of 43 regions. More so, there are other fascinating Sudoku variants such as Greater than Sudoku. Chapter 5 Personal Critical Review The progress I have made during the duration of this project, have been fairly slow but surely getting there. Having said this on many occasions, I have still not conquered my time management skills! The project started very slow which meant I was behind schedule. Nevertheless my organisational skills have kept me on balance. The GANT chart has been of great help in doing so. What has kept me going throughout this project in particular would be self discipline and motivation. This project has proven that I am capable of working to my own initiative, but also well within a group; my time during the group project. Furthermore, my time on this project has definitely promoted a better mentality of my future ambitions. I have learnt that it is crucial to read a lot, as well as reading as broadly as I can. This in turn have aided in the running of my project. With other coursework deadlines, I made that a priority and had no time to meet with my supervisor. I understand that meeting with my supervisor is equally important because a supervisor is there to encourage and to advice on any difficult obstacles I may encounter. An area of interest to proof whether NP-complete problems can be solved in polynomial time, was left open as future work. This could be the next step of extending this report that little bit further. Chapter 6 Conclusion A challenging problem for further research is to proof whether NP-complete problems can be solved in polynomial time. This has yet to be solved and anyone who has a formal proof will be rewarded $1 million dollars by The Clay Mathematics Institute.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Life of Pi :: essays research papers

Life of Pi Pi Patel is on a ship to a whole new world. He’s leaving his whole world behind except the zoo, it‘s on board with him. When awoken by a sound, Pi goes to explore. He finds that the ship is sinking and before he can wake his family he is thrown into a lifeboat. A zebra falls into the lifeboat, breaking its leg. Without truly realizing what he is doing, Pi helps Richard Parker onto the lifeboat. Then he realizes, he is on a lifeboat with a 450 pound Bengal tiger. Pi builds a raft out of oars and life jackets so that he can stay a safe distance from the lifeboat. The lifeboat doesn’t seem to have the tiger on it at all. Just a zebra and a hyena and orangutan. The hyena attacks both zebra and orangutan and then the tiger appears. He is sleek and quiet about his approach. None the less, Pi Patel is now alone on a lifeboat with Richard Parker. He wonders how he will survive with a tiger. Pi decides that it would be best to keep the tiger alive, to act as the alpha. He trains Richard Parker to understand which space belongs to who. Pi uses a solar power water filter for fresh water and fishes for food. He feeds himself and the tiger. This keeps them at more of a alpha relationship because Richard Parker knows where his food and water come from. When there is no fish to caught and no more supplies, the only option is to starve for that day. Finally, Pi and Richard Parker land on an island. It is a very mysterious place. The trees seem to grow straight out of the algae and the meerkats do no seem to be afraid of anything. There are fresh water ponds and for some reason Richard Parker always returns to the lifeboat at night to sleep. Pi finds out the algae is acidic and that’s why Richard Parker sleeps in the boat at night.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Ayn Rand Essay -- essays research papers fc

This essay will discuss the life and works of Ayn Rand. The woman who would become Ayn Rand was born Alice Rosenbaum on February 2, 1905. (Branden, Barbara pg.3 1986). She was born during the eleventh year of Nicholas II's reign in Russia.(Baker pg.1 1987). Rand's birth was just before a revolution in Russia, however this revolution was put down by her first year.(Branden, Barbara pg.3 1986). The Rosenbaum's lived quite comfortably under the czar.(Baker pg.1 1987). Beneath their large apartment was Fronz Rosenbaum's chemist shop.(Branden, Barbara pg. 4 1986). Rand's father was a serious man whom she never knew very well.(Branden, Barbara pg.4 1986). Ayn's mother, Anna Rosenbaum, was the opposite of her father and was very sociable. (Branden, Barbara pg. 4-5 1986). As a child, Rand did not have a true sense of affection with her father. (Branden, Barbara pg.5 1986). However, she did develop a strong bond of love with him as she grew older. (Branden, Barbara pg. 4 1986). Ayn did not get along well with her mother. (Branden, Barbara pg.5 1986). Although the Rosenbaum family was traditionally Jewish, it is said that Rand really did not have a religious upbringing. (Baker pg.2 1987). As a result, she became atheist as a child after coming to the conclusion that believing in God is degrading to humans in the sense that man should live for no one else but himself. (Baker pg.3 1987). Rand discovered a passion for upbeat, lively music which she began collecting on records. (Branden, Barbara pg.8 1986). By the time she was five years of age, she had two little sisters, Natasha and Elena. (Branden, Barbara pg.7 1986). As a whole, Ayn's childhood was not a pleasant experience for her; in later years it proved to be an unhappy memory as well. (Branden, Barbara pg.34 1986). Ayn Rand received a good education and learned to read and write at age six. (Baker pg.2 1987). She found her classes boring and too easy. (Baker pg.2 1987). This led her to begin writing simple short stories and novels. (Baker pg.2 1987). Rand's inability to fit in socially at school and her boredom with the education she was receiving led her to become somewhat of a recluse with one exception: her passion for literature. (Branden, Barbara pg.11 1986). Literature seemed to absorb Ayn more than any other thing; it intrigued her and gave her much pleasure to read and soon, to write. (Branden, Barbara p... ...ssionate goal--to create her ideal world and her ideal man. And at the end of her life--despite the odds against her, despite the pain and the losses, despite the illness and anguish and death--it was done." (Branden, Barbara pg.404 1986). "It's a benevolent universe, and I love it, and any struggle was worth it. Struggle or unhappiness are so enormously unimportant. I don't regret a minute of my life." (Branden, Barbara pg.404 1986 [said by Ayn Rand]). Rand led an eventful and memorable life. She inspired many with her novels and her philosophy. The world has gained tremendous insights and knowledge from the philosophy and intriguing novels of Ayn Rand. Bibliography: Branden, Barbara The Passion of Ayn Rand 1986 Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. New York, N.Y. Nathaniel, Branden Judgement Day: My Years with Ayn Rand 1989 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, Massachusetts James T. Baker Ayn Rand 1987 G.K. Hall and Co. Boston, Massachusetts The Ayn Rand Column: A Collection of her Weekly Newspaper Articles Written for the Los Angeles Times. With additional, little-known essays by Ayn Rand 1971, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1991 Second Renaissance Books Oceanside, CA

Friday, October 11, 2019

I Have No Idea Essay

* 1. How does the author define â€Å"cell yell† (paragraph 2)? What changes in society since the 1950s does the author suggest account for the way people use cell phones today? -The author defines â€Å"cell yell† as a bad behavior from a human talking on the phone too loud, in a way that is including stranger into his private conversation. In the 1950’s, people were used to have their conversations inside an enclosed phone booth where no one could hear their conversation. These phone booths where at public places. Nowadays people don’t care about having privacy when they are talking on the phone. * 2. How does mobile phone design contribute to bad cell phone manners? -Mobile design tend to make us feel that the other person on the phone can’t hear us clearly or vise versa because of the phone’s size and how close the mouthpiece is to our mouth. What part does the cell phone user’s sense of self-importance play? -I believe that the part that cell phone user’s sense of self-importance play is for the other person to who we are talking to can listen to us clearly. * 3. Eavesdroppers on cell phone conversations experience various reactions, both positive and negative. According to the author, what are some of these reactions and how do people listening against their will handle their strong feelings? -Some people still talk on the phone privately, others don’t. Some people use text messages to express their feeling and not having to listen to the person’s disappointed voice. Some people prefer to receive a bad new via text message. * 4. Based on the author’s examples, what are the rude cell behaviors that bother people the most? What behaviors bother you the most? You might wish to share with the class a humorous or outrageous illustration of bad cell manners that you have encountered. -The rude behavior that bothers people the most is when people are talking too loud. The behavior that bothers me the most is when I’m chating with someone and that person is using his phone instead of putting it away to bond with me. I honestly hate when people do that. WRITING ASSIGNMENTS * 1. Write an essay in which you argue for or against having a â€Å"designated outcast zone† for cell talkers in restaurants, theaters, or other places—the way many establishments now isolate smokers. Develop your thesis with two or three clear supporting points. -People that talk on the phone on quite places. People that text instead of paying attention to what really matters. * 2. Is the rudeness of cell phone users just a symptom of a society that has become less considerate and more self-centered? With a group of classmates, brainstorm other possible â€Å"symptoms† of this trend. Some ideas might include rude clerks and customers, aggressive drivers, or the dying art of thank-you notes. Then select one of these and write an essay in which you suggest ways to reverse the trend. -Yes I believe it is. Aggressive drivers. People nowadays don’t care about other people anymore. For example in Miami, at least one or two hit-and-run happens every week. People scream from car to car. People shot other people for beeping. 3. E-mail and texting are just two other technologies that some people use inconsiderately or even abusively. For instance, some people forward jokes many times a day, and others text during meetings or dates. Write an essay in which you suggest rules of web etiquette for one technology. You may wish to look up â€Å"netiquette†Ã¢â‚¬â€the word for rules to govern online behavior. -Texting. There is people that text 24/7. They can’t live without texting on the phone. Something else that’s being ruining us are smart phones that offer us social network for us to use at anytime, this is overwhelming. People pay more attention to their phone nowadays because of those social networks.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Heritage assessment Essay

Kizlik [2014] argues that the purpose of a learning objective is to communicate, and that a well-constructed behavioral learning objective should have little room for doubt about what is intended. Health professionals in designing educational programs to engage both patients as well as families, should be able to taper the task or objective to the specific patient and their family; for them to be able to explain what you taught them and for them to be able to demonstrate it. On the Euromed Info website, on Developing Learning Objectives. Retrieved from [n.d.] state that â€Å"a simple and practical way of developing learning objectives is to start with the words, WHO, DOES WHAT, HOW and WHEN.† For the purpose of this exercise the learning objective will be for the patient and the family to be able to change an ostomy bag in a patient with a newly formed colostomy. It is important to find out from the patient and th e family which learning styles work for them, example whether reading of pamphlets, one on one teaching or visual aids. Also the condition or ability of the patient to perform the task, e.g. is the patient strong and well enough to perform the task or are they too weak from being ill. In using the learning objectives cited above, WHO- will be the patient and family DOES- list the components needed WHAT-changing a stoma bag HOW – by performing task or stating how to WHEN- by discharge The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [JCAHO] as cited on the Euromed Info website on Family Structure and Style, retrieved from [] defines the family as â€Å"the person or persons who play a significant role in the individual’s life including persons not legally related to the individual. â€Å"How a family functions influences the health of its members as well as how the individual reacts to illness† retrieved from . In the light of this , having the family understand the rationale behind the treatment and steps on how to help the patient change this stoma bag will assist the  patient to be more confident in changing their stoma bag and also in dealing and coping with this new health change. REFERENCES

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Analysis of Open and Closed Economies

Analysis of Open and Closed Economies Table of Contents (Jump to) TASK1 1.0 DEFINITION OF OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.2 COUNTRY WHO PRACTISE OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.3 CONSUMPTION AMONG OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.4 INVESTMENT AMONG THE OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.5 IMPORT AMONG THE OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY TASK2 2.0 UTILIZE 2.1 WEALTH DISTRIBUTION 2.3 FOUR PRODUCTION FACTORS EFFICIENTLY AMONG WEALTH DISTRIBUTION 2.4 INTRODUCE NEW TECHNOLOGY AMONG WEALTH DISTRIBUTION 2.5 INVESTMENT IN NEWPLANT AND EQUIPMENT AMONG WEALTH DISTRIBUTION 2.6 ENSURE SUFFICIENT DEMAND AND SUPPLY FOR PRODUCTS AMONG WEALTH DISTRIBUTION 3.0 CONCULUSION 4.0 REFERENCES TASK1 1.0 DEFINITION OF OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between domestic community and outside, e.g. people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community, an d flow of funds as investment across the border. Trade can be in the form of managerial exchange, technology transfers, all kinds of goods and services. Although, there are certain exceptions that cannot be exchanged, like, railway services of a country cannot be traded with another to avail this service, a country has to produce its own. This contrasts with a closed economy in which international trade and finance cannot take place. The act of selling goods or services to a foreign country is called exporting. The act of buying goods or services from a foreign country is called importing. Together exporting and importing are collectively called international trade. There are a number of advantages for citizens of a country with an open economy. One primary advantage is that the citizen consumers have a much larger variety of goods and services from which to choose. Additionally, consumers have an opportunity to invest their savings outside of the country. In an open economy, a coun try’s spending in any given year need not to equal its output of goods and services. A country can spend more money than it produces by borrowing from abroad, or it can spend less than it produces and lend the difference to foreigners. There is no closed economy in today’s world. An economy in which no activity is conducted with outside economies. A closed economy is self-sufficient, meaning that no imports are brought in and no exports are sent out. The goal is to provide consumers with everything that they need from within the economy’s borders. A closed economy is the opposite of an open economy, in which a country will conduct trade with outside regions. 1.1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY 1.2 COUNTRY WHO PRACTISE OPEN ECONOMY AND CLOSE ECONOMY American countries in adopting open economy and free and other trade practices or the United States an open economy is the opposite of a managed economy. It is one that is characteristically market- oriented, with free market policies rather than government-imposed price controls. In an open economy industries tend to be privately owned rather than owned by the government. In the area of international trade an open economy is one whose policies promote free trade over protectionism .On the other hand, a managed or closed economy is characterized by protective tariffs, state-run or nationalized industries, extensive government regulations and price controls, and similar policies indicative of a government-controlled economy. In a managed economy the government typically intervenes to influence the production of goods and services. In an open economy, market forces are allowed to determine production levels. A completely open economy exists only in theory. For example, no country in the world allows unlimited free access to its markets. Most nations have fiscal and monetary policies that attempt to improve their economies. Many economies that are open in some respects may still h ave government owned, monopolistic industries. A country is considered to have an open economy, however, if its policies allow market forces to determine such matters as production and pricing.