Monday, September 30, 2019

About Factory Workers: History Essay

Working in factories became a new kind of job experience in Canada between the 1840’s-1930’s whether it was a clothing, textile, or industry worker. It was an industry of disaster that seemed to hang for most of those years. There were many strikes at this time by the factory workers about the working conditions, new machinery that could cause workers to lose their jobs, and many more. Those years were very hard for factory workers. Factory workers included men, women, and children. The hours were long and the pay was very low, working 9-12 hours a day, six days a week. People worked together in large numbers in the new factories along with a lot of noise, smoke and dirt. Accidents in the work place were very common in the factories and if the workers could not perform or do their job well, there were many other people who could replace them. See more: Experiment on polytropic process Essay The managers did not care for their safety The managers decided to be more discipline and controlling with their workers by having strict supervision, clearly stating and following regulations, firmness on fixed hours of work, a system of fines and dismissals, the elimination of unions (groups) and slacking. New immigrants were chosen over the old immigrants because they thought it would be easier to control them. Women and children that worked in the factories were considered easy to control as well. The workers were treated similar to prisoners. The main industries/factories were in Hamilton, Sault Ste. Marie and Sydney which is where many factory workers settled to live because they were close to work (the factories) and their families lived in those cities as well. Between 1880’s-1920’s, unions were organized, strikes were started as workers tried to illustrate their workplace/factory. There was not too much conflict but instead there were acts of resistance, non-cooperation and even sabotage as workers tried to gain some control over their workplace. Factory workers lived with their families in crowded, broken down shack/hut, and were often paid in store scrip. Their pay was so low that workers at times were forced to search the countryside for food. In mid- January, wages were cute back even further, which is when workers went on strike but soon collapsed because of arguments within the group/union and lack of organization. By March, the conditions had gotten worse and they went on strike again but eventually were persuaded to give up. They obeyed and returned to work with very little improvement in their conditions. George Tuckett, a Hamilton cigar manufacturer, reduced working hours, gave regular bonuses and Christmas turkeys along with a free city lot and a cash payment towards a house to workers with twenty one years of service. He argued that he did not do this out of kindness or generosity, but it should be done because it is good management. Factory workers were not treated equally. The managers and owners of these factories were very cruel to their workers and cared little for their safety. It was neither fair nor right to treat anyone the way these factory workers were treated and many strikes were formed. The industry destroyed the 1840’s-1930’s as well as their workers. Bibliography: Heron, Craig. Working In Steel. Toronto:McClelland and Stewart, 1988. MacDonald, Michael. Horizon Canada Volume 2. Centre for the Study of Teaching Canada Inc., 1987. MacDonald, Michael. Horizon Canada Volume 6. Centre for the Study of Teaching Canada Inc., 1987.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Minimum Wage Increase Essay Essay

Most people would agree that raising the minimum wage sounds like a good idea, but arguments arise concerning if this increase would benefit the economy. Jared Bernstein believes that a minimum wage increase would positively affect the American economy. He argues that the economy is driven by consumer spending and low ­income workers are very likely to spend their extra earned money. On the contrary, Douglas Holtz ­Eakin strives to make the point that raising the minimum wage would not be beneficial to the economy. He argues that there would be no reduction in poverty because only a small percent of minimum wage workers are in poverty, while most are unemployed. An examination of raising the minimum wage will reveal why it will benefit American society. According to Jared Bernstein raising the minimum wage would help. Bernstine suggests that the American economy is made up of 70 percent consumer spending. He argues that an extra dollar earned by a wealthy person is less likely to be spent than an extra dollar earned by a low ­income person. In addition Bernstein points out that this leads to the low ­income worker being much more likely to consume their extra dollar of earnings. Similarly one might argue that a minimum wage increase that directly raises the pay of a relatively small share of the workforce by a small amount is unlikely to be a big deal. Raising the minimum wage is a growth strategy and should be used to try to revive our economy. The wage increase would help families struggling on minimum wage salaries. These families would see these new earni ngs as a chance to spend on new things and will slightly help macroeconomic growth. Helping the economy on the margin while also helping these families make ends meet. One should conclude that raising the minimum wage will help families in need and in terms help the economy. According to Douglas Holtz ­Eakin Raising the federal minimum wage will neither reduce poverty nor boost growth. Holtz ­Eakin suggests that increasing the minimum wage would ensure that m illions of Americans got raises that they would presumably turn right around and spend. He argues that unfortunately the money for a raise has to come out of the wallet of another American. In addition Holtz ­Eakin points out that the minimum wage hike for one low ­wage worker comes directly out of the pocket of another. In contrast one might suggest that the wage increase is neither anti ­poverty nor stimulus. According to Holtzs article companies may not be able to hire as many workers if the wage is increased. The money may not come directly from another working americans pocket but it has to come from somewhere. Businesses may suffer from the increase. Some businesses may not even be able to hire as many employees as necessary, taking away jobs. One should conclude that increasing the wage may harm other americans not directly affected by the increase. According to Jared bernstein the moderate increases in the minimum wage boost the earnings of most low ­wage workers without leading to large employment losses. He argues that The increase favored by the president and congressional Democrats, would place the real value of the wage floor back where it was in th e late 1960s. In addition Bernstein suggests that this increase would directly affect about 13 percent of the workforce. He argues a vast majority of low wage families would benefit from the increase. Similarly one might suggest that some families struggling to make ends meet have 2 or 3 minimum wage jobs. These families with multiple minimum wage jobs will greatly benefit from the increase. This research does not put into account that many families struggling on minimum wage have multiple minimum wage jobs. Now these families would have extra earnings to make ends meet and stimulate the economy. Since minimum wage workers are more likely to spend their extra dollars,the american economy will benefit from extra consumer spending. One should conclude that raising the minimum wage would help lower class families who depend on minimum wage. According to Douglas Holtz ­Eakin the minimum wage is a poor tool to fight poverty because it does not target those in poverty. Holtz ­Eakin suggests that only 2 percent of workers earn the minimum wage, and only 20 percent of those are in poverty. He argues that the reality is that the dividing line between being poor and being non ­poor is having a job. In addition Holtz ­Eakin points out that only 7 percent of those who have a job are in poverty, while more than 27.5 percent of those without jobs are poor.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

(Individual Research Project on) The Development of Transportation Essay

(Individual Research Project on) The Development of Transportation Technology and its impact on International Trade - Essay Example The Development of Transportation Technology and its impact on International Trade Introduction Countries or any geographical territories or any organizational entities will do business with others, in order to fulfill their needs, to get profits and also to develop their economies, thereby leading to international trade. International trading will be initiated when a country or its organization has a product, which may be needed or being used in some other country. Thus, international trading provides opportunities for various countries in the world, to acquire products or items, which they may not be able to affordably manufacture themselves. This form of international trade provides the end customer with a wide range of products and services, thereby improving their standard of living and comforts. However, the key factor or kind of ‘bridge’, which aids this international trade or even a domestic trade, is the transportation modes. With geographical territories or pot ential markets spread out in various corners of the world, the physical distance has to be covered to reach the product to the intended consumer. These physical distances, which may not by manually covered by humans, can be covered only with the use of transportation modes ranging from land transport vehicles, ships, aircrafts, etc. Although, earliest modes of mechanical transportation like ships were developed to explore new territories, the fact is, the ships were maximally used in those days mainly by merchants for trading. Then in the course of history, as technology got developed, the transportation modes also became more advanced, further developing international trade. Literature Review Advancements in transportation technology has aptly ‘fueled’ development of international trade, transforming the lives of people all over the world optimally. As Claval (2009, pg.9) stated, â€Å"The new facilities of transport and communication allowed for a rapid transformatio n of the horizons of expectation of ordinary people all over the World†. This perspective about transportation’s role was supported by Stiglitz (2002, pg.9) as well; who stated that transportation has led to closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world, â€Å"breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders†. This role of transportation is very true because the ‘footprint’ or even a ‘wheel mark’ of transportation around the world has brought about various optimal changes, including in International trade. This fact was validated by Vossos (2011) who stated â€Å"Transportation of goods is one of the most important issues of international trade, as the speed of delivery and preservation of products' quality are major success factors for companies†. The key aspect, which optimizes this role of transportation, is the newer form of technologies in the t ransportation sector, and that includes the earliest form, starting from wheels to current day supersonic engines. As Vossos (2011) further states, â€Å"the term "transportation technology" refers to all advancements since the invention of the wheel.† Although, ships have been aiding a lot in international tra

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business - Essay Example In general, the role of MIS in terms of a DSS is to analyze and process business data that will aid business decision making efficiently (Nowduri 2011). For instance, MIS provides comparative sales figures pertaining to a week, revenue figures projected on assumptions of a new product and history of decisions or workarounds performed (Nowduri 2011). Types of information Systems Following are the five kinds of information system (Asemi, Safari et al. 2011) Office information system (OIS) Transaction processing system (TPS) Management information system (MIS) Decision support system (DSS) Expert system (ES) The hardware’s, software’s and networks are utilizes by the office information system (OIS) in order to improve the communication as, well as the work flow between the employees. In addition with the help of automated information system users can perform several tasks electronically while using other electronic devices such as computers etc. for instance, it is easy fo r a registration department to e-mail the class schedule to the students through internet. On the other hand if the information system is not implemented then manually the registration department has to photocopy the schedule and post it to the student’s house. The transaction processing system delineates the everyday transactions held by the organizations. Its main purpose is to confine and to develop the information that is produced by the organizations. The term transaction is described as the everyday business activities for example cash deposits, payments, orders or reservations. In fact, this activity is significantly performed by the accounting staff. The management information system (MIS) is a kind of information system that produces such information that is precise, appropriate and well structured. In addition, this information is utilizing by the managers and the other users in order to make right decisions, solves troubles, track progresses, provides reports on re gular basis (Awais, Samin et al. 2011) and manages activities. Therefore, the management information system (MIS) is also known as the management reporting systems (MRS). Furthermore, three fundamental kinds of information are provided via MIS such as (Awais, Samin et al. 2011): Example of detail report is Detailed Order Report. Example of summary report is an Inventory Summary. Example of exception report is an Inventory Exception Report. In a decision making situations an information system i.e. Decision Support System (DSS) is produced that can help the users to achieve better decisions. The data that is used by the Decision Support Systems (DSS) is either from internal or from external source. (Awais, Samin et al. 2011) The Internal sources of data might include sales, manufacturing, inventory, or financial data from an organization’s database. Data from external sources could include interest rates, population trends, and costs of new housing construction or raw material pricing. However, DSS provides a series of excellent decision making techniques. The Expert System is an information system that is designed to incarcerate and store data from human experts. Moreover, this information is utilized by the less expert employees that lack good decision making skills. This Expert System (ES) is based on two components such as, knowledge base and inference rules. Discussion One of the tight-spot in this research paper is that today managers are

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Gladiators. Significance of Gladiatorial Combat Research Paper

Gladiators. Significance of Gladiatorial Combat - Research Paper Example The first century BC historian, Nicolaus of Damascus, claims that the Romans borrowed the custom of gladiatorial combat from the Etruscans, and Suetonius preserves a tradition which held that the Etruscan king, Tarquinius Priscus, was first to introduce the spectacle to Rome (Futrell, 1997). G Ville in ‘La gladiature’ has argued that gladiation was of Osco-Samnite origin and then was adopted by the Etruscans at the end of the fourth century or early third BC from whom the Romans imported the custom (cited in Futrell 1997). Futrell, however, has criticized Ville's thesis and tentatively renewed the argument in favor of an Etruscan origin, while other have suggested that the Greeks in Campania may have influenced the development of Italian funerary games, including armed combat. But it is unlikely that gladiation came to Rome from a single source (cited in Futrell 1997). Furthermore, once adopted in Rome, the institution underwent significant changes and evolution. Whateve r its origin or origins, roman gladiatorial combat was not a desperate and chaotic spectacle of killing and dying. Body For the last two hundred years of the republic, gladiatorial combats were presented in association with the funerals of great men. Tertullian states that these funerary gladiatorial combats evolved from actual human sacrifices at the tomb.... Indeed, that Tertullian perceived gladiatorial combats as a threat indicates their religious significance. But the origins and nature of g1adiation were debatable even in antiquity, and there is little reason to suppose that we can uncover them today. We have already seen that conflicting opinions placed the source of g1adiation in either Campania or Etruria; likewise in antiquity there seems to have existed a debate over whether or not gladiatorial combat was a form of human sacrifice. For example, a passage in the Historia Augusta provides the two sides of this debate: there were some who believed that gladiatorial combats given before a military campaign were a form of human sacrifice meant to appease Nemesis and ensure victory in the impending war, while others believed that the sight of combat, wounds, and death were primarily intended to desensitize the soldiers and prepare them for battle (Versnel, 1996; Futrell, 1997). Some scholars have renewed the argument for gladiatorial combats as a form of human sacrifice (Versnel, 1996; Futrell, 1997). The truth, however, probably lies somewhere in the middle. On the one hand, it is difficult to deny the religiosity of gladiatorial combats; during the republic, they were fought in connection with the funerals of great men, while during the empire they came to be associated with the imperial cult. In this connection, we may also consider the ritual significance of a gladiator's blood (Futrell, 1997). On the other hand, the bloody and often fatal nature of gladiatorial combat readily lent itself to interpretation-or reinterpretation-as human sacrifice, especially by those who would attack the institution, and this ought to rouse our suspicions. Rives has shown

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Liquidity Function Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Liquidity Function - Essay Example Liquidity preference is the desire to hold cash. The money in cash and the rate of interest which is demanded in exchange for it is a "measure of the degree of our disquietude (ICFAI Center for Management Research (ICMR), 2005)." The rate of interest, in Keynes' words, is the "premium which has to be offered to induce people to hold the wealth in some form other than hoarded money." The higher the liquidity preference, the higher will be the rate of interest that will have to be paid to the holders of cash to induce them to part with their liquid assets. The lower the liquidity preference the lower will be the rate of interest that will be paid to the cash-holders. Transaction Motive: This motive is related to the "need of cash for the current transactions of personal and business exchanges." It is further divided into the income and business motives. The income motive is meant "to bridge the interval between the receipt of income and its disbursement", and similarly, the business motive is "the interval between the time of incurring business costs and that of the receipt of the sale proceeds." Precautionary Motive: The precautionary motive relates to the "the desire to provide for contingencies regarding sudden expenditures and for unforeseen opportunities of advantageous purchases." Banks keep cash in reserve to meet unexpected needs. Individuals hold some cash to provide for illness, accident, unemployment and other unforeseen contingencies. Money under the speculative motive is for "securing profit from knowing better than the market what the future will bring forth." Liquidity Vs Profitability Short run trade-off exists between liquidity and profitability. Other things remaining constant, the more liquid a bank the lower its return on equity and return on assets (The Banker, 2004). Both asset and liability liquidity contribute to this relationship. Facts about liquidity of a bank: The more liquid a bank, the less profitable the bank Liquid assets earn less than illiquid assets. The shorter the maturity, the lower the yield. The highest yielding loans are loans with the highest default or interest rate risk and are therefore the least liquid. Asset liquidity is influenced by the composition and maturity of funds i.e. the ease with which a bank can convert assets to cash with a minimum loss (Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks, 2001). Large holdings of cash assets evidently decrease profits because of the opportunity loss of interest income. In terms of investment portfolio, short-term securities yield lower returns compared to long-term securities. As investors value price stability and therefore long-term securities pay a yield premium over short term securities, to induce the investors to extend their holding period. For banks that purchase short-term securities, this increases the liquidity but at higher potential returns. For example, in an environment where market expectations are constant for short-term treasury yields, the treasury yield curve will slope upwards, reflecting liquidity premiums that increase with maturity. A bank's loan portfolio displays the same trade-off where the loans carrying the higher yields are the least

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Queen vs. Carpenter Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Queen vs. Carpenter - Term Paper Example When Carpenter told him about the death he gave him no clue about the reasons that caused death and showed that he didn’t had a clear idea. 3 Other witnesses also told that the afternoon when Mrs. Carpenter was murdered her husband arrived earlier than expected and soon a rush was created in her home after which Giles came. Another neighbor heard voices that Mr. Carpenter was disgracing his wife few hours before the murder. Some witnesses also heard sounds of quarrels coming out from Carpenter’s home. Robert McDonald Physician He told that her fits were of hysterical nature and never lasted long. McDonald confirmed that she didn’t die of fits after he had examined her body. He predicted that Mrs. Carpenter was died a couple of hours ago. After examining the body this physician was unable to identify the cause of death but it was sure that she didn’t died out of fits.4 Peter. E. Jones Post Mortem Report The report showed a number of signs of injury. Peter e xamined and suggested that these signs on the back of skull were due to external injuries which might had been the cause of death. There was no matter of poising or any other brain damage. 5 There was insufficient evidence to prove Carpenter’s guilt. Post Mortem report showed a minor indentation on the skull which might had been due to an instrument of any other accident. There were no punctured parts disapproving the cause of murder as commissioned by the trial. Stomach and heart were never determined for the causes of death. 6 If we see today the evidence provided by the doctors and witnesses was insufficient. Reports cannot be formulated just on the basis of post mortem reports. In the neighborhood only Giles had the idea and links with Carpenter and his wife. Meanwhile... It was an expensive task to take a course to the courts. Prosecutor was fined if the witness failed to appear at the proceedings rendering advantage in the hands of the witness. Similar to the civil litigation laws this starting to become recognized and entered the system by awarding costs. It was therefore said and perfumed in the current case that the monetary parties settled down by giving payments to both parties and settling the issue. This unjust act was a common observation. In many of the cases even the magistrate was the supreme power who dealt the system of transferring money from one party to another and settling the dispute. The courts were therefore left for only a few cases where all the other attempts would have failed to solve the problem. In the 19th century criminal justice was similar to the civil courts of this date, where problems of paying utility bills and other such issues were rendered as the last choice in courts.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Final Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Final Assignment - Essay Example The definition of terrorism varies from state to states and also among individuals. Notably, many definitions suggested cover the three aspects of terrorism including the causes, perpetrators and the means of attack.1 Defining terrorism is very difficult because the meaning of the term has changed frequently since its inception, that is, it was initially seen as a positive, politically focused and state-sponsored activity but with time, it has been largely associated with violent non-state actors and criminal implications. Secondly, terrorists never admit being terrorists and they never accept being violent and a threat to the international community but they perceive themselves as focused individuals participating in legitimate struggle using the only available means to them. In addition, the use of neutral names such as Al Qaeda attracts different public opinions. For instance, the victims of terrorism perceive the perpetrators as criminals and while majority firmly opposes terrori sm, some individuals offer sympathy and support to them. Therefore, conflicting views makes it difficult to come up with a universally accepted definition. Uncivil network are seen as the drivers of the conflict as they encourage individuals to cause violence and engage in activities that disrupt peace.2 In most cases, uncivil networks are formed for political reasons. They are fraud to acquire power or political influence. In addition, they are formed to challenge the legal rules and they are mostly associated with illegality or criminal activities. Human trafficking is a process whereby individuals are transported from their communities or countries via the use of threat or deception and forcing them into unfavorable work conditions and dehumanizing activities. Agreeably, it is mainly done to exploit individuals, for instance, it includes sexual exploitation, forced labor and marriage, and removing organs from individuals among others. It is a violation

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Nursing Theorist Grid Essay Example for Free

Nursing Theorist Grid Essay 1. Theorist Selected: Florence Nightingale born on 5/12/1820, a writer, a philosopher, a theorist, a â€Å"reformer, a statistician, an administrator, a researcher† (Attewell, 1998), an educator, and a nurse leader. 2. Description of key points of the theory: Nightingale was one of the first theorist to connect the environment with the patient’s well being. Nightingale believed a persons health depended on their environment and that patients will be compliant to treatment because they wanted to be cared for and be healthy. Nightingale believed (as cited by Alligood, 2010, p. 101), â€Å"that the person was a holistic individual and thus had a spiritual dimension. She believed nursing was a spiritual calling, and with that belief she assumed that nurses could help those clients who were in spiritual distress.† She believed that the way the home, community or hospital room was kept affected the patient’s healing process. She created â€Å"13 cannons: Ventilation and warmth, light, cleanliness of rooms and walls, health of houses, noise, bed and bedding, personal cleanliness, variety, chattering hopes and advices, taking food, what food, petty management and observation of the sick† (Alligood, 2010, p.101-102) that help aid in the care of the patient and the environment to help promote good health. She also believed that nurses should be caring in nature and want to care for the ill and not for personal gain. Nightingale promoted a well balanced diet to help the patient with the healing process. 3. Theory’s historical background: Nightingale developed her passion young in life. Cook wrote (as cited by Selanders, 2010) â€Å"She records in her diary an interaction with God at age 16 when He â€Å"called her to His service†. Nightingale clarified (as cited by Alligood, 2010, p.98), â€Å"nursing knowledge is distinct from medical knowledge.† Nursing focuses on the patient and the environment to promote health where medicine focuses on disease process and medicinal use for health. In 1854-60 Nightingale cared for the wounded soldiers in the Crimean War with â€Å"emphasis on hygiene† (Attewell, 1998). During her time in the Crimean war she persuaded the education of army soldiers and doctors, which then lead to an opening of a pathology lab. She was an advocate for nursing education and clinical experience. â€Å"In 1860 founded 1st program to educate nurses in St. Thomas Hospital in London† (Alligood, 2010, p.98). In 1882 she wrote 2 articles â€Å"nurses, training of†, â€Å"nursing the sick†, they were in reference to how nursing school should be training. Let us not forget how she help analyze data she collected. â€Å"Statistics were a vital component of Nightingale’s systemic approach to health care† (McDonald, 2010). Complete the following grid based on the selected theorist information. Define each term according to the selected theorist. Explain how the selected theorist’s approach to each element of the metaparadigm applies to the following: Nursing practice Nursing education Nursing research Term Definition Applied to Nursing Practice Applied to Nursing Education Applied to Nursing Research Person According to Alligood (2010, p98), â€Å"most of Nightingale’s writings refer to the person as the one who is receiving care, she did believe that the person is a dynamic and complex being†. The one whose health is affected by the environment. The patient allows the nurse to provide care and help promote a healthier environment. McDonald noted (as cited by Hegge, 2013) â€Å"Nightingale realized that working-class women needed education to become competent nurses, so she began designing educational elements that would later be used in the Nightingale School of Nursing.† Nightingale’s research and data collection was done for the benefit of the patient. Creating evidence based practices. Health According to Alligood (2010, p 98) Nightingale wrote, â€Å"Health is not only to be well, but to be able to use well every power we have.†Ã‚  Nightingale created the 13 canons to help promote health. Getting patients back to their functioning status before they fell ill. Nightingale promoted patient health education, especially in the young women so her children could be healthy. Nightingale statistical expertise help make changes to improve a patients care and overall health. Nursing Whall noted (as cited by Alligood, 2010, p. 99)â€Å"Nightingale saw nursing as the â€Å"science of environmental management.† Nightingale set four steps for nursing process: observation of patient’s health status, identification what needs changing in the environment, implementation of nursing care plan, reassessment of patient’s health status with documentation of all steps. Nightingale advocated for nursing education. Schools taught nurses how to observe a patient, how to alter the environment and implement changes. We report back to the physician from our assessments and reassessments. Nightingale had the hospital collecting data report data such as mortality and length of stay. The data was analyzed and then changes in practices were implemented. Environment Selanders stated (as cited by Alligood, 2010, p98) that â€Å"environment can be defined as anything that can be manipulated to place a patient in the best  possible condition for nature to act†. Placing the patient in the appropriate environment. For example, Creating a pleasant, calm, soothing and quiet environment in a nursery so babies can rest and stay healthy without distress. Schools created to help educate the future nurses. In those teachings were the â€Å"how to change, alter, or improve the patient’s immediate environment. Nightingale’s collected statistics on the environment in which the soldiers dwelled in and analyzed it creating changes. Reference: Alligood, M.R. (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization application (4th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier. pgs 98. Retreived from the UOP ebook collection. Attewell, A. (1998). Florence nightingale (1820-1910). Prospects, 28(1), 151-166. doi: Retrieved from the UOP online library Selanders, L. C. (2010, March). The Power of Environmental Adaptation: Florence Nightingale’s Original Theory for Nursing Practice. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(1), 81-88. doi:10.1177/0898010109360257. Retrieved from the UOP online library Hegge, M. (2013, July). Nightingale’s Environmental Theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(3), 211-219. doi:10.1177/0894318413489255. Retrieved from the UOP online library McDonald, L. (2010, March). Florence Nightingale Passionate Statistician. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(1), 92-98. doi:10.1177/0898010109358769. Retrieved from the UOP online library

Saturday, September 21, 2019

African Americans Essay Example for Free

African Americans Essay In the beginning of 20-th century African Americans were already free from slavery, but their rights differed significantly with the rights of â€Å"white† people. Politics of segregation was still in place, and African Americans, especially in Southern states, were forced to live in separate parts of cities. Special institutions like schools, churches, cemeteries, even special transport units existed for the African American part of the population to separate â€Å"blacks† and â€Å"whites†. Needless to say, these special organizations and units for the African Americans were of low quality. African Americans lacked good education and though were forced to work as unqualified personnel. Political activity for the African American was a dream. But between the African American people some activists appeared that called upon peaceful improvement of their status and establishment of equality of the races. A number of public organizations appeared that were objected to attain the equal rights for the African Americans, among them were even educational organizations like the institute of Booker Washington. 2. USA entered the conflict in the Korean peninsula with the intention to lead the UN forces and to give support to the South Korea armies in confrontation with the Northern aggressors. United States could not let the communists in Korea win shortly after the communists’ victory in China, and tried to keep this sphere of influence on the events in the Far East. In the third phase of the war, general Douglas MacArthur strived for the complete destruction of North Korea troops and insisted on the â€Å"total war† with the communists of China and Korea even to the extents of nuclear bombing. These ideas weren’t welcomed by the President Truman and were the cause of MacArthur’s resignation. After the Korean War the â€Å"cold war† had spread from the Far East into the other regions. USA had expanded their military presence in Europe and in the Middle East; also the politics of neutrality in the Indo-China became obsolete. Military-industrial complex of the United States rapidly recovered from the recession that followed the World War II 3. Eighteenth century was the time of revolutionary changes in almost every aspect of life. Ideas of the Age of Enlightenment claimed the universal equality, and women started to understand that they may possess an active position in social life. This tendency reached the point of culmination at the end of the century, when the Declaration of the Rights of Women was created in 1791 by Olympe De Gouges during the times of the Great French Revolution. This declaration demanded for women equal rights in the family, the rights of active and passive voting, right of possession, right for education and right to take up any posts. Declaration was the embodiment of ideas of feminism that were born in the beginning of 18-th century, and appeared to be the starting point for the active movements for the equal rights of women in the future. 4. Philadelphia System was based on the idea that the prisoner, left alone with his thoughts, with God and the Holy Bible as the only book for reading, would aspire to his inner perfection and inevitably reaches remorse for his deeds. â€Å"Philadelphian† prisoners were kept in solitude and silence. They had to wear masks while leaving their cells, no entertainments and relations with other prisoners were allowed, and work was a reward for the good behavior of the prisoner. This type of keeping the prisoners was very expensive; moreover, silence, solitude and forced idleness often caused insanity, flatness of mind or suicidal tendencies among the imprisoned. So the Auburn System was developed to change the situation. According to this system, criminal should be reformed by regular obligatory work, accuracy and discipline. During the day prisoners work in general workrooms with the only short breaks for the rest and walk, and for the night they are separately locked in one-man cells. Several hours in a week are for education. In an early Auburn System prisoners were prohibited to speak on the penalty of corporal punishment, but later on they were allowed to socialize during the rest. This system is more psychologically comfortablew for the prisoners, and is not such a heavy financial load for the government, as the Philadelphia System is.

Friday, September 20, 2019

North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (or as they say in French le Organisation du traità © de lAtlantique Nord (OTAN)), began as a military alliance of governments due to the North Atlantic Treaty ( 4 April 1949). From its inception NATO, with headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, has focused on a structure cooperative defence. It translates this structure as having the member states responding to a joint and mutual defence against attack by a non- NATO aggressor. From the original 12 member states there are now 28 participants in this organization dedicated to keeping the alliance strong and vital in a changing world order. Initially, NATO began as a political body, more prone to discussion rather than action. This changed when the Korean War spurred the member states into action and they set up a military command structure under the leadership of two U.S. supreme commanders to effectively deal with the situation that was brewing in Korea. As the first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated the organizations goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down.[4] The alliances of WWII with the Russians had taken a beating as the battles became ideological with communism on one side and democracy as represented by the west and NATO was on the other. As for the Germans, there was a basic distrust since they had been responsible for both world wars and it was only four years after their surrender that NATO was formed. Eventually Germany became and is a vital and full-fledged member of the organization. The alliance had some initial credibility issues, since the ever changing relationships between European members and the US were in flux (as always). There was a significant feat that NATO would be unable to stand together against a Soviet invasion. As a sign of its coolness towards the alliance, and basically as a vote of no confidence, the French developed their own nuclear arsenal and withdrew from NATOs military structure in 1966 and hasnt rejoined that aspect of NATO since. In 1955, in retaliation to NATO, the Soviet Bloc countries started their own alliance The Warsaw Pact, and thereby created a common antipathy towards each alliance. In 1989, precipitated by the fall of the Berlin Wall and reunification of Germany, NATO focused its attention on the turmoil of the Balkan states and the troubles brewing in that region. At the same time NATO forged stronger and more durable associations with their former Warsaw Pact adversaries and succeeded so well that quite a few of these states joined the alliance between 1999 and 2004. On 1 April 2009, the NATO membership grew it its present 28 states with the entrance of Albania and Croatia into the alliance.[5] Due to the 11 September, 2001 attacks against New York and Washington, NATO has refocused its mission to fight terrorism, instead of the Eastern block and re purposed itself to meet new and more difficult confrontations in other regions of the world. The alliance has provided troops to Afghanistan as well as trainers to Iraq in order to fulfill its treaty obligations to a member state, in this case the United States, that has been attacked. As part of its ever evolving nature, NATO and the European Union (many of whose members are also members of NATO) signed a package of agreements called The Berlin Plus Agreement on 16 December 2002. The crux of this agreement gives the EU the possibility to use NATO assets in case it wants to act independently in an international crisis, on the condition that NATO itself did not want to act-the so-called right of first refusal.[6] Thus if NATO, as the alliance refused to act in a crisis, the EU therefore has the option to respond. NATO members provide 70-plus% of the worlds defence spending.[7] The United States contributes 43% the total military spending of the world[8] with the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Italy spending an additional 15%.[9] The remaining alliance countries make up the remainder of the 12% that accounts for this huge outlay of funds, materials and personnel, making NATO ready to meet any crisis. History The history of NATO is a history of treaties that came in the wake of the Second World War. In 1948 he Treaty of Brussels, signed by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the United Kingdom was the forerunner to the NATO agreement. The signing of this treaty coupled with the insidious Soviet Berlin Blockade gave rise to the Western European Unions Defence Organization that same year. [10] There was an understanding though that in order to thwart the rising military power of the USSR, the United States had to be brought into the picture to enable the west to have a solid counterbalance of power. This strategy precipitated a need for a new military alliance. Talks began at once and in less than a year, the North Atlantic treaty was signed between the 5 signatories of the Treaty of Brussels and the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. There was a lot of hostility regarding the treaty and it even caused some Icelanders to advocate and participate in a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949, just days before the final signatures on for April. The Parties of NATO agreed that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence will assist the Party or Parties being attacked, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. ( ) The phrase Such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force does not necessarily mean that other member states will respond with military action against the aggressor(s) has raised many questions over the years. Member states are obligated to respond to a crisis concerning the alliance or any one of its members, however these states have the freedom to choose how they will respond. (Hence Frances decision to withdraw from the military structure, as it never wants to commit its troops to a fight) This clause negates Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels that states that the members will aid the attacked member militarily. Further, the article limits the organizations scope to Europe and North America, which explains why the Falklands War did not result in NATO involvement. However, there was justification for the Afghanistan and Iraq wars involvement as the organizations that attacked the Member state, the US , were not national and merely located in another location . With NATO, some consistency of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology has been brought into existence. This has often meant that European member countries adopting U.S. practices and techniques. There are about 1300 Standardization Agreements (STANAGs) codifying these standards. For instance the 7.62ÃÆ'-51 NATO rifle cartridge of the 1950s became the standard firearm cartridge among many NATO countries while Fabrique Nationale de Herstals FAL was NATO rifle in Europe and used until the early 1990s. In addition to consistent firearms and rifles, signals became standardized, enabling any NATO aircraft to land at any NATO base without confusion. Even the NATO phonetic alphabet has made its beyond NATO into civilian use. Cold War Perhaps the defining moment in early NATO was the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. This police action became a critical test for the alliance as it confronted what appeared to be all Communist countries working together to destabilize the Koreas. This forced NATO into developing military plans.[11] This war was also the precipitator to the nascent cold war between the West and the East and their ideological disparity. In 1952, NATO began to codify its requirements for a Long Term Defence Plan. The Lisbon conference first suggested that there be 96 divisions dedicated to the alliance, however in 1953, this number was devolved to 35 divisions, with an increased dependence on nuclear weaponry to make up the difference. There were 15 at the ready divisions located in Central Europe and Italy and Scandinavia hosted another ten. Another outcome of the Lisbon Conference was that the Chief Civilian post of Secretary General of NATO was created (Baron Hastings Ismay was appointed). (12, 13) By September of 52, the first NATO exercises were held and Operation Mainbrace brought 200 ships and over 50,000 troops and sailors to practice defending Norway and Denmark. It was a huge success. By the end of that first year, Greece and Turkey joined the alliance. This forced some very contentious negotiations, with the United States and Britain disputing as to the logistics of bringing these two countries into the command structure.[14] All through the controversy that was openly under discussion, covert operations were underway to set up a solid resistance in case of a successful Soviet invasion (Operation Gladio). This resistance was original to the Western European Union, however it seemed more logical and effective to transfer these plans and operations to NATO control. Despite the disputes there were signs of unity a bonds began to grow among the different between NATOs armed forces so that the troops themselves were more cohesive. This included the NATO Tiger Association and competitions such as the Canadian Army Trophy for tank gunnery among the different units and countries. By 1954, the Soviet Union felt that it should become a part of NATO in order to keep the peace in Europe.[15] This did not sit well with the NATO member countries, as they feared that the real motivation of the Soviet Unions was weaken the alliance from within, sewing discord, so they rejected the proposal. However, despite earlier declarations of keeping the Germans down, the admission of West Germany into NATO on 9 May 1955 was described as a decisive turning point in the history of our continent by Halvard Lange, Foreign Minister of Norway at the time.[16] German military forces and manpower were a deciding factor into allowing their former enemy into the alliance. Without the extra soldiers fielding enough forces to resist a Soviet invasion[17] would have been impossible. The upshot of this admission though was the Warsaw Pact, signed on 14 May 1955 (6 days later) with the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and East Germany as members. This formal response to Germanys admission into NATO , defined in no uncertain terms, the two sides of the Cold War. French withdrawal Charles de Gaulles presidency of France from 1958 caused a constant strain on the NATO alliance. De Gaulle ongoing objections to the United States role in the organization was the basis of his never ceasing disputation with NATO. He felt that the special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom was undermining the alliance and he wanted France to be the predominant member state. De Gaulle wrote to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958, where he basically demanded a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom in NATO. He also stipulated that NATOs coverage be expanded cover French geographical areas, most notably French Algeria, so that NATO could assist Frances counter-insurgency against Algerian rebels. De Gaulle did not like the response Eisenhower and Macmillan gave him so he began to pull away from a unified alliance and create independent defences for his country. He wanted to play both sides of the alliance in case East Germany invaded West Germany. He was determined to have a separate peace with the Eastern bloc and had no desire to involve France in a NATO-Warsaw Pact conflict. In 1959, despite being a signatory to the alliance, De Gaulle began his severing his allegiance to the alliance. In March 1959, France withdrew its Mediterranean Fleet from NATO command. In June 1959, de Gaulle proscribed foreign nuclear weapons on French soil. By this act, the United States began transferring military aircraft out of France and returning control of all air force bases that NATO operated in France since 1950 to the French by 1967. De Gaulle wanted only his own military and nuclear arms on his own soil, despite his supposed solidarity to the alliance. In 1962, during the Cuban Missle Crisis de Gaulle showed unity with NATO, however afterwards he sustained his unrelenting determination of creating his own independent defence through the removal of Frances Atlantic and Channel fleets from the NATO command structure. Therefore it was no surprise to anyone within the alliance that by 1966, all French armed forces were removed from NATOs integrated military command, and all non-French NATO troops were asked to leave France. All his actions caused the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) to move from Rocquencourt, near Paris, to Casteau, Belgium, by 16 October 1967. While France remained a member of the alliance, its removal on the surface seemed to preclude any sort of committed defence of Europe from possible Communist attack. On the other hand, France did have forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany throughout the Cold War. A chain of clandestine agreements between U.S. and French officials, ( Lemnitzer-Ailleret Agreements) delineated the way French forces would fit together and return to NATOs command in case hostilities commenced during the Cold War. [18] Although on the surface France and DeGaulle had manipulated themselves into an independent there was nevertheless a way for France to unite and fight with NATO in case of war. It wasnt until 1995 that the French position on the military structure of NATO began to change. Dà ©tente NATO was able to keep from actual military engagements as an alliance throughout most of the Cold War. The organization was prepared in case of such a scenario. In 1968, NATO argued that since the United States controlled nuclear weapons until a decision to go to war and NATOs own nuclear sharing arrangements with the US were no in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty that was being signed. Since few states actually knew what NATOs nuclear position actually was, whatever the alliance declaimed was considered truth and there was no challenge to their stance as far as controlling nuclear weapons was concerned. NATO countries officially defined two balancing aims of the Alliance on 30 May 1978. The first was to follow their initial directive and maintain security throughout the alliance. The second was to pursue dà ©tente. The purpose of these two complementary aims was to match the NATO defences to those of the Warsaw Pacts offensive capacity without inciting an extra arms race. In 1979, since the Warsaw Pact countries built up their nuclear capabilities in Europe, NATO approved the deployment of U.S. GLCM cruise missiles and Pershing II theatre nuclear weapons in Europe. These new warheads strengthened the western position regarding nuclear disarmament. This Dual Track policy meant that peace was pursued on one hand while meeting weapons build up on the other. Essentially it was a game of one-upmanship conducted by both sides. This occurred again in 1983-84, when NATO responded to the positioning of Warsaw Pact SS-20 medium-range missiles in Europe, by deploying modern Pershing II missiles. These missiles have the ability to hit military targets quite hard such as tank formations, should there be a war. These dual actions led to peace movement protests throughout Western Europe in light of the fact that the danger level ratcheted up in case peace talks were unsuccessful. Escalation Most of Europe was divided between the two alliances. Members of NATO were often shown in blue, with members of the Warsaw Pact shown in red on any maps depicting their allegiances. President Ronald Reagan of the United States was determined that the buildup of the tension between the US and USSR should be exacerbated even more by having NATO deploy those Pershing II and cruise missiles in Western Europe, primarily West Germany. These Pershing II missiles are tactical nuclear weapons intended to strike targets on the battlefield in the event that the Soviets invaded West Germany. The Soviets fed into the Reagan paranoia and played into his deployment plans on 1 September 1983, when they shot down a South Korean passenger airliner when it crossed into Soviet airspace. Reagan characterized the shooting down of the plane a massacre. With world opinion on their side the U.S., galvanized support for the deployment of the missiles. This deployment stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev were reached and the hegemony of the Soviet Union began to dismantle.. Gamesmanship in the membership was still around although during the late 1970s and early 80s there was some stagnancy. In 1974, when the Turks invaded Cyprus, Greece withdrew its forces from NATOs military command structure. Finally though, in 1980, they were readmitted (Turkish cooperation was necessary) Finally in May 1982, Spain was able to join the alliance as its former dictator had died and the newly democratic country was free to become part of NATO. Spain joined the alliance. In November 1983, NATO maneuvers simulated a nuclear launch and it caused widespread panic in the USSR. General Secretary Yuri Andropov, who was in ill health at the time, was worried that the maneuvers, were actually a genuine first strike. In response, Soviet nuclear forces were readied and air units in East Germany and Poland were placed on alert. It was a tense situation and although U.S. intelligence felt that the Soviet response was merely a propaganda effort, there are many who feel that ailing Andropov was convinced that a NATO first strike was imminent. Post Cold War When the Cold War ended and the Warsaw Pact dissolved in 1991, the main adversary of NATO was gone. There was a strategic reassessment of NATOs purpose. While this reassessment and realignment of the nature and tasks of the alliance were underway, the ultimate result is that NATO has expanded into Eastern Europe and former Warsaw Pact countries are becoming part of the alliance. NATO has also extended its activities into new areas. In 1990, NATO welcomed the German reunification. This meant that the former East Germany was part of the Federal Republic of Germany and therefore alliance. This had been agreed in the Two Plus Four Treaty earlier in the year. There was still a need for Soviet approval of a united Germany to remain in NATO so it was stipulated that foreign troops and nuclear weapons would not be stationed in the eastern part of the country (the former East Germany). Because of this new treaty, there has been an ongoing controversy between scholars and diplomats regarding the expansion of the NATO Alliance. Once scholar, Stephen F. Cohen argued in 2005 that a commitment was given that NATO would never expand further east,[19]. On the other hand but according to Robert Zoellick,( then a State Department official involved in the Two Plus Four negotiating process,) feels that Cohen is wrong as there was no formal commitment of the sort made in the treaty regarding any other country besides Germany.[20] In May 2008, The Daily Telegraph held an interview with Mikhail Gorbachev who felt along with Cohen that there was a commitment made. Gorbachev said the Americans promised that NATO wouldnt move beyond the boundaries of Germany after the Cold War but now half of central and eastern Europe are members, so what happened to their promises? It shows they cannot be trusted.[21] NATOs military structure was cut back and reorganized in the post Cold War era, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe agreed between NATO and the then still existent Warsaw Pact, mandated specific reductions in personnel, weapons, and nukes. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the military balance in Europe shifted and this was recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty. Finally in 1995, after nearly a 30 year absence, France rejoined NATOs Military Committee in 1995. French President Nicolas Sarkozy reformed Frances military position and enabled the country to return to full membership on 4 April 2009. This date also saw France rejoin the integrated military command of NATO, even as it still maintains its own nuclear deterrent independently of the alliance.[22] Balkans interventions After years of military preparedness and no fighting during the Cold War, NATOs first military operation came during the former Yugoslavia civil war. It was called Operation Sharp Guard and ran from June 1993-October 1996. NATO provided maritime enforcement of the arms embargo, and set ic sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Six months into the embargo and blockade, (28 February 1994) NATO took its first military action, by shooting down four Bosnian Serb aircraft. These planes violated a U.N.-mandated no-fly zone over central Bosnia and Herzegovina. NATOs Operation Deliberate Force, a bombing campaign started in August, 1995, against the Army of the Republika Srpska, after the Srebrenica massacre. Operation Deny Flight, the no-fly-zone enforcement mission, started in 1993, continued the end of December 1995. The NATO air strikes forced an end to the war in Bosnia. This culminated in the the Dayton Agreement, that provided NATO with authority to deployed peacekeeping force, under Operation Joint Endeavor, first named IFOR and then SFOR. This deployment ran from December 1996 to December 2004. Following the lead of its member nations, NATO began to award a service medal, the NATO Medal, for these operations in appreciation of its troops efforts in a difficult endeavor. NATO was now a fully fledged military organization that was as capable as any single member nation on conducting a military operation to successful conclusion. What had been words on paper was now put into practice. From 1994 to 1997, NATO and its neighbors set up several forums for dialogue in order to keep conflict at a minimum. The Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council were all results of these forums and led the way to a more inclusive membership in the alliance. On 8 July 1997, three former communist countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO and their final admission occurred in 1999. By 1998, the NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council was established to keep communications open and free flowing between the former adversaries. NATO saw its first broad-scale military engagement in the Kosovo War, where it waged an 11-week bombing campaign, called Operation Allied Force. This was again against what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Serbians massacred and cracked- down on Albanian civilians in Kosovo. While a formal declaration of war never took place the NATO action was successful. Yugoslavian leader Slobodan MiloÃ…Â ¡eviĆ¡ agreed to NATOs demands and Kosovos native Albanians were free to stay or go. During Kosovo, NATO deployed one of its international reaction forces, the ACE Mobile Force (Land), to deliver humanitarian aid to Kosovan refugees. [23] NATO then established the KFOR, a NATO-led force under a United Nations mandate that operated the military mission in Kosovo. In August-September 2001, the alliance also mounted Operation Essential Harvest, a mission disarming ethnic Albanian militias in the Republic of Macedonia.[24] NATOs work in the military arena was expanding and becoming vital to international interests This expansion and necessity led the United States, the United Kingdom, and most other NATO countries to oppose efforts that require the U.N. Security Council to approve NATO military strikes, as had happened against Serbias invasion into Kosovo in 1999. France and some others claimed that the alliance needed U.N. approval of course probably more as a way to thwart the US/UK more than any ideological reasons. The U.S./U.K. side that Russia and China would have exercised their Security Council vetoes to block the strike on Yugoslavia and thereby condemned all those ethnic Albanians to slaughter. Russia and China could in fact exercise these same vetoes whenever future conflicts arose where NATO intervention was required. This would essentially cripple and the purpose of the organization. NATO adopted the Alliance Strategic Concept during its Washington Summit in April 1999 that emphasized conflict prevention and crisis management[25] as a prelude to any sort of military intervention unless required and approved by the alliance. After the 11 September attacks Everything changed after the 9/11 attacks on the United States. At this time, and for the first time, NATO invoked Article 5 of the NATO Charter. The Article states: Article 5 The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security . Essentially, an attack on any member shall be considered to be an attack on all members. This invocation of Article Five was ratified on 4 October 2001 when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.[26] Eight official actions were taken by NATO to respond to the attacks. Among them were Operation Eagle Assist and Operation Active Endeavour. Operation Active Endeavour is to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general in the Mediterranean . Despite this early show of solidarity within the alliance there was another crisis barely more than a year later. France and Belgium vetoed the procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq. Germany did not use its right to break the procedure but said it supported the veto. So that all efforts to assist that member fell into abeyance and should Turkey be attacked, there is no agenda in place to quickly form a reprisal. On the other hand the invasion of Afghanistan provided NATO with a chance for a more public unity. On 16 April 2003, NATO took command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Germany and the Netherlands, the two nations leading ISAF at the time of the agreement requested this action and all NATO ambassadors approved it unanimously. The handover of control to NATO took place on 11 August, and marked the first time in NATOs history that it took charge of a mission outside the north Atlantic area. By January 2004, NATO appointed Minister Hikmet Çetin, of Turkey, as the Senior Civilian Representative (SCR) in Afghanistan to be responsible for advancing the political-military aspects of the Alliance in Afghanistan. On 31 July 2006, a NATO-led force took over military operations in the south of Afghanistan from a U.S.-led anti-terrorism coalition and has been protecting the area since. Bowing to US Pressure, NATO even has set up a training program in Iraq to assist in that countrys efforts. NATOs involvement in both arenas has expanded its role in the war against terrorism and the alliance has been instrumental in assisting the now 8 year old conflicts in their efforts to bring the terror organizations in both countries to a halt.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Internal Medicine :: Medicine College Admissions Essays

Internal Medicine As I grew up in the town of Vallabh Vidyanagar (India), I always had the ambition to become "doctor". As a young schoolboy, my family members encouraged and motivated me to follow my dreams. When I was a child, my grandmother suffered from Heart Failure secondary to Mitral Stenosis. I remember watching the doctors examine her using the "Stethoscope" and I became curious as to what they were listening. I always wanted to put the earpieces in my ears. As I moved to secondary school, my elder sister went on to medical school, and she would often discuss anatomy with her friends at home. This served to heighten my curiosity about the human body. Later I followed in my sister's footsteps and joined medical school. My interest grew deeper when I began to dissect the cadaver. I enjoyed it so much that I used to go to the lab during my lunch break hours. With physiology and biochemistry, I learned how complex and integrated the human body is. Pathology, microbiology and pharmacology together gave me a fundamental understanding of the human body in diseased state. As I began my clinical rotations I found them all interesting; however, medicine always was a favorite of mine. In my final year of medical school, I presented a case study about "Mitral Valve Stenosis with Regurgitation". Among the listeners was my professor, who is also the Chief of the Department of internal medicine. At the end of my presentation, he asked me a few questions about my case study and concluded the session with words of praise. He stated that I was thorough in my history taking and examination and that I analyzed the patient's condition perfectly. I think that it was this personal interest in medicine that has always motivated me to attain excellent marks in Medicine. During my clinical rotations, I saw that internist must be well versed in subspecialty areas such as cardiology and critical care. In addition, the internist must be an expert in the essentials of primary care medicine that incorporates an understanding of disease prevention, wellness, substance abuse, mental health and other non internal medicine subjects. When I was posted in ICU during my internsh ip, my consultant was treating an HIV positive patient for an extended period of time through many ups and downs. I understood then that the internist not only needs extensive knowledge and skill in diagnosis and treatment, but also humanistic qualities of integrity, sensitivity, empathy and compassion.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A Farewell To Arms By Ernest Hemingway :: Free Essay Writer

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A Farewell To Arms written by Ernest Hemingway illustrates a typical love story between two people, this love story plays out in a war torn Italy during world war I, where Italy was battling Austria, the novels main characters, lieutenant Fredrick Henry an American ambulance driver serving in the Italian army and Catherine Barkley an English volunteer nurse who served in Italy. The novel portrays Henry as a drunk who traveled from one house of prostitution to the next, he was not happy with his lifestyle. Henry feels detached from life and is on a quest for identification, he gives a particular insight about how he feels about women â€Å"clear, cold and dry†. Henry loved to play the role of a womanizer. He is isolated from his family and compatriots. He is an American fighting a war in another country. In my opinion Henry is emotionally exhausted and it appears he has no place to go. Henry meets Catherine Barkley, near the front between Italy and Austria-H ungary. Catherine suffered during this war before she met Henry. Catherine had lost her fiancà © during this war. She was startled by rain in her nightmares. She perceived rain as death. At first Henry wanted to seduce the nurse, to him it was a game, he had told the nurse that he loved her, but she had caught on to his game. Catherine confronted Henry and told him what she thought of his game. He was severely wounded on one of his runs. Henry was sent to the American hospital where Catherine worked. That is where he actually began to fall in love with her. He fully recovered and returned to the war-front, during a retreat the Italians started to fall apart. Henry shot an engineer sergeant under his command for dereliction, later in the confusion Henry is arrested by the battle police for the crime of not being Italian. He is disgusted with the army and facing death at the hands of the battle police during questioning. Henry decided he has had enough of the war, he ran into the riv er to escape. After swimming to safety, Henry boards a train to reunite with his love Catherine whom is pregnant with his child. Here is where he meets with an Italian bartender who will help him escape to Switzerland by boat. Henry and Catherine plan to get married soon after the baby is born.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

How William Shatner Changed the World

The documentary â€Å"How William Shatner Changed the World† is about the global effect that the original series of Star Trek had on technology throughout the world. The documentary talks about the technology that currently existed when Star Trek originally came out in 1966 and its comparison to the ‘futuristic' technology that was onboard the Star Trek ship the ‘Enterprise'. This ‘futuristic' technology onboard the enterprise sparked a revolution in the world's technology and inspired many to make technology similar to the ones on Star Trek.Many film techniques are used in this documentary not only to make the documentary interesting, but humourous as well. Some of these film techniques include various camera shots, archival footage and montages to name a few. In the beginning of the documentary, William Shatner is talking and is driving his car and whilst he is driving it there are many jump shots between his car and segments of Star Trek. The effect of thi s gives you insight of what the documentary is mainly about.In this documentary many inventors make an appearance in the documentary and talk about how Star Trek inspired them to invent their technology e. g. Martin Cooper who was the inventor of the cell phone the shots used when all of them are talking are medium shots that capture their face and upper torso. This gives off the feeling that the people look close and also so that the camera men can capture them using arm gestures. The use of archival footage is used a lot throughout this documentary showing mainly clips of Star Trek relating to the topic that William Shatner is narrating about.This makes it easy to show what the ‘futuristic' technology Star Trek had at the time so we can see and compare it to today's modern technology that we take for granted. One of the more interesting film techniques that was used in the documentary was a segue which was used when William Shatner walked up to a giant rock, then an edit was used to show archival footage of him as an younger actor in a Star Trek episode fighting an alien, and as an alien throws the rock, the current William Shatner comes back into view and catches the rock.This use of one motif being the rock used in two scenes to link each other is a slightly humourous segue. Other film techniques used in this documentary are camera angles where William Shatner deliberately moves the camera up and down making him look slightly different from both angles. Editing is also used throughout the documentary a lot for example when William Shatner was narrating and the camera was upon him, jump cuts are used switching to different shots of him like close ups, long shots and crane shots.This editing makes William Shatner's narration more interesting and funny. â€Å"How William Shatner Changed the World† is an example of a great documentary that uses its film techniques wisely and with good timing, not to mention the documentary has a very good context that appeals to many viewers because of its witty humour.

Monday, September 16, 2019

“Reading the River” by Mark Twain, and “The Way to Rainy Mountain” by N. Scott Momaday Essay

The short works Reading the River by Mark Twain, and The Way to Rainy Mountain by N. Scott Momaday, are personal tales of moments in the authors lives and how those experiences impacted them spiritually. The central theme of both essays is that of impressing upon the reader to be careful not to take everyday life for granted. Both authors accomplish this mission by relying on examples from nature, but Momaday goes a step farther and incorporates his Native American heritage into the explanation of his world. Twain writes about learning to guide a riverboat down the Mississippi River and to look for tell-tale signs of positive or negative aspects that may affect the journey. He describes how, after so many years of looking for things in or on the river, he has lost the ability to appreciate the beauty of the river itself that others take for granted. Nature is also an important element in the writings of Momaday. He uses lush language to describe the mountains and the plains in order to relay his deep respect of his surroundings. He also describes the oral history of his tribe, the Kiowas, which his grandmother handed down to subsequent generations. When his grandmother died, he realized that she was the last Kiowa who had ties to the history of the tribe and that any tales told from then on would be merely reiterations of her stories, rather than the actual story-telling itself. Both authors compare the subject of their interest to that of a story, be it a book or a tale well told. In this way they are able to fascinate the reader rather than merely preach their advice. It could even be argued that both authors are merely engaged in the fanciful retelling of their actual life events. Either intentionally or accidentally, they both provide powerful images that encourage their readers to appreciate that which is commonplace. Twain compares the Mississippi River to a book that is deciphered only by the trained eye, such as his. He remembers the beauty that once enraptured him and drew him to the water. He describes a sunset with imagery that leaves the reader thirsty for more, only to reveal that his trained eye no longer sees such irrelevant things it sees only the danger of a rock, the landmark of a tree or the disturbances in the water that signal incoming or receding tides. He laments that those who could not read this book saw nothing but all manner of pre tty pictures in it ( p.  583). This elaborate sunset that had once bewitched him now merely told him that we are going to have wind tomorrow (p. 584). Natural phenomena in Momadays recollections also summon up powerful imagery for those who choose not to look too closely. He describes the lush fields, the snowy mountains, and the harsh plains with words that paint a picture in the readers mind. He also transitions into the idea that not everything must be seen by the eyes in order to give a real picture to the mind. In his grandmothers mind were places she had never been to physically, but rather were an immense landscape of the continental interior [that] lay like memory in her blood (p. 548). The imagery of her stories ceased to exist when her body lay in death. With this event, Momaday realized that there would be no more oral histories, merely tales of the past, and he set out to do what his grandmother had not to actually see these places because he, like so many modern Native Americans, did not have these me mories programmed into his own blood. Although there are similarities of theory and imagery in both Twains and Momadays essays, both are also unique in relaying the shared message of paying attention to ones world. Where Twain loses the ability to appreciate the beauty of the flowing river, Momaday embraces the beauty of nature as a tool to underscore the theme of his writing. Unable to appreciate the beauty of the Mississippi River, Twain is forced to have a more realistic and practical view. He searches the water for nuances in the current or new dangers that werent there during the previous voyage, and he looks to the skies for predictions of weather. Momaday adopts a romantic style, relying on the legends of his forefathers to explain what to his tribal ancestors must have appeared unexplainable. For example, rather than recognize the existence of Devils Tower and the stars in the sky as scientifically explainable phenomena, the Kiowa people explained the existence of such things with myths and legends. Being sun-worshipers, they also explained their very existence with mythological importance. This is common throughout Native American heritage, whereas the quest for factual knowledge has long been the goal of European Americans. Twain relies heavily upon analogies so that the reader can more readily identify with his position. Momaday enraptures his readers with carefully detailed descriptions and heartfelt emotions. Both are equally successful tactics and invite a wide variety of readers to leave their reading experience with the same basic message. Where Twain equates his inability to see beauty in the river to that of a doctor no longer able to separate the beauty of the human body from the disease and deformities of humans, Momaday creates an imaginary playground that the reader is hesitant to leave. Everything we encounter has a purpose from the most magnificent sunset to the magical changing of the seasons. Both Mark Twain and N. Scott Momaday realize this and encourage others to do so by the telling of their life experiences in these two essays. A common theme is relayed via different styles and different uses of language and imagery, and both are equally effective. Twains analogy of the doctor and patient to explain his relationship with the river can be replaced with any profession, for example architects or gardeners, and appeals to a realistic and down-to-earth audience. Momadays ability to paint pictures with words and to tease the reader with romantic myths draws a very different group. Whether these essays be reviewed for their similarities or their differences, both are alike in their effectiveness to encourage readers to stop and smell the roses.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Immanuel Kant S Moral Theory Essay

Although Kant’s moral theory makes many great points about fairness and equality, the negatives of the theory outweigh the positives. Kant’s moral theory would never be able to function in today’s society. His theory is based solely on always fulfilling your moral duty. Which would be impossible since once someone told a lie or showed emotion everything would fall apart. Due to the fact that everyone wouldn’t trust anyone anymore which wouldn’t end up well. Deontology is defined as the theory of duty. Kant’s moral theory can be categorized as a deontological theory, due to his belief that you have a moral duty to fulfill (Kant 114). Kant believes that all people have intrinsic or inherent value. Which in simple terms mean that we as human beings are held to a higher standard; to know what is right and wrong (Kant 114). Kant states that there are only two principles for an action to be morally right. First, you must have done the action out of the motivation of good will. Kant defines good will as â€Å"To act out of duty, out of a concern and respect for the moral law†(Kant 114). Good will plays a very important role on assessing the moral worth of an action. Kant explains that you can’t just have good will for an action but also you must do the right thing. So without good will you couldn’t determine any action morally right. The second principle is that the action must conform to moral law. If you follow these two Blezien 3 principles the outcome being good or bad is not your responsibility (Kant 113). Moral law is universal and is determined by categorical imperatives. The use of categorical imperatives plays a big role in Kant’s overall moral theory. The first categorical imperative formulation is â€Å" Act only on that maxim that you can will as a universal law† (Kant 116). This categorical imperative applies to everyone and focuses on your thought process before you act on something. You must ask yourself is what I’m about to do something I can approve of others doing on the regular? If you can’t approve of others committing the same act then your action wouldn’t pass the categorical imperative test. Kant’s second formulation is â€Å" Always treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end† (Kant 117). The second categorical imperative applies to your individual self and everyone else. This imperative focuses on how you should always acknowledge everyone’s value and existence. There is never a time where you should use someone or let someone use you. My first time reading about Kant’s moral theory I thought there were only weaknesses. After I spent more time analyzing the theory, I found that there are both strengths and weaknesses. A strength that I found was how Kant really expressed that everyone is to be treated equally. Kant says that since all humans are rational beings that we are all capable of respecting others. This is a strength because with everyone using their moral obligation to treat each other equally things would be a lot easier. People would not only consider themselves before acting on something but they would have to make sure they are Blezien 3 considering the moral thing to do. If this idea of equality were universal and followed by everyone; there would be a lot less violence, depression, and racial tension. Which would leave everyone overall satisfied since everybody is following the moral law. A critical weakness I found in Kant’s moral theory is that he says there is a right and wrong for everything. This is a weakness because; there are many examples where using good will isn’t the best answer. For example when I read that Kant suggested that if a killer comes to your house; and asked where your friend is to kill him you must tell the truth. That seems a little extreme and I have to disagree that would be the best thing to do. Your emotions would sure be going crazy which already makes your answer morally wrong according to Kant. He needs to know where to draw the line and shouldn’t be only on one side. In this paper I have described the basic principles of Kant’s moral theory. I have learned that without having a good will you can never be morally right according to Kant. His categorical imperatives show a lot of fairness and equality, but when it comes down something simple like lying to someone who wants to kill your friend to save your friends life you’re not morally correct. Overall, Kant’s moral theory was very interesting to study how philosophers thought back then. I wonder what Kant would think if he knew how much we let our emotions affect our decisions.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Why and how do writers of English Literary and playful texts “break the rules of” English?

After having defined the terms â€Å"playful and literary†, I will then look briefly at foregrounding and the classification of the English Language. Then rhyme, rhythm and repletion would be examined followed by how writers break syntactic rules to show thought process. This will be followed by literary usage of the metaphor, collocation and iconicity. Then I will examine playful text in relation to graffiti, newspapers and advertising. Literary and playful usage of language is different from that of everyday language in that it draws attention to the language itself. Writers achieve this by being creative, original and imaginative. Moreover, by â€Å"skilfully manipulating language to create patterns and usage† to express ideas, which draws the readers giving them an original insight into the world of the writer. (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 198) Writers of literary and playful text use language to draw attention to it by way of surprising the reader into an original perception of the language and the subject matter. This according to the Russian formalists is foregrounding (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 163). Foregrounding is achieved, by breaking the rules of language, that is sound, grammar and meaning to place the reader in the text. Thus, the reader is surprised into seeing the image, hearing the sounds and feeling the emotions. The English Language is classified according to the way words are arranged in sequence and it is referred to as a subject verb object or SVO language. This is because the subject always comes before the verb and the object that is being referred to follows the verb. (Graddol etal. , 1994, p. 5) Looking first at rhyme, rhythm and repetition in literary usage, writers especially poets use this as a form of foregrounding. They use rhyme, rhythm and repetition in to make original observations. As in William Blake's poem â€Å"The Tyger†, one can see that there is an end rhyme with the first line rhyming with the second, and the third with the fourth in an aabb pattern. This is not something is common in normal speech or text. Therefore, Blake, whilst following the tradition of writing poetry in end rhymes is breaking the rules of English. Blake does this because he is not only foregrounding the symmetrical pattern of the verse in its aabb rhymes pattern, but he is also highlighting the eye symmetry of the text. This is done in the first and last stanza where both stanzas are symmetrical apart from one word. Thus, there is a sense of closure and we understand that we have arrived at an end, but because of the aabb pattern, there is also continuity and the idea of the circle of life. Blake also uses rhythm, with each line consisting of four alternating stressed and unstressed words, is used to emphasis the beat of not only the tread of the Tyger but also the rhythmical beating of the hammer on the anvil. The creator of the Tyger and the creator of the poem also use repetition and alliteration to foreground the symmetry of the design. (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 165) Authors also use rule breaking to foreground their characters thought processes. William Faulkner In his novel â€Å"The Sound and the Fury† manipulates the language and surprises the readers into the thought process of the narrator Benjy, who thinks and voices his thoughts, as would a child. He achieves this flow of thought process by omitting the object after the verb. Thus, the reader is uncomfortable with the language, which is limited, showing and creating a sense of incompleteness. This is exactly what Faulkner is aiming for, because Benjy although being thirty-three, is incomplete and exhibits the thought and language process that of a child. Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 167) The Charles Dickens also breaks the rules governing the syntactic relationship between words. In his novel The Bleak House Dickens does not, use the verb â€Å"is† after the subject, which is the fog and the object, which is everywhere and everything. By doing this, he foregrounds the reader into an innovative outlook and the reader receives the impression that there is no escaping from the fog; it is all invasive invading the countryside, the social, cultural and political environment. (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 167) Another distinctive feature of literary usage is the metaphor and collocation. Metaphors are comparisons that are not made explicit. They exploit the meanings of words and â€Å"are slipped into â€Å"the sentence (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 165). The rules of English are broken by the metaphor by playing on the various meanings of a word and the paradigmatic relationship of a word. As in the use of â€Å"burning† and â€Å"burnt† in Blake's The Tyger the words not only refer to the eyes of the Tyger but also to the furnace and the stars when speared are also burning too such an extent that they water the heaven with their tears. Collocation refers to the combining tendencies of words† (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 169) that is, the relationship words have with each other, the meanings that are associated with words and in the context that they are normally used. When this rule is broken, the writers are able to utilise our sense of word collocation to foreground â€Å"unusual and striking association of meaning† (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 169). In Carol Ann Duffy's poem ‘Litany' metaphors and collocation is used when she writes â€Å"The terrible marriages crackled cellophane round polyester shirts†. Marriages do not crackle. The word crackle is usually associated with dry inanimate objects; it is this association, which surprises the reader into looking at the marriage in a new light. The metaphor of the cellophane and polyester shirts continue this theme of inanimateness, dead and lifeless as opposed to the marriage being alive and thriving. Collocation is also associated with playful usage of English as in Punning. This occurs when the different meanings of the words are exploited, as in â€Å"My Children! My Africa! Here the Playwright plays on the word ‘riot' to emphasis the difference in culture and explores the difference in meaning associated to a word by differing social groups. (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 171) Another feature of literary usage is the iconic â€Å"where the sounds and shapes of words and phrases imitate particular objects or process† (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 172) writers use this device in order for the reader to experience and hear the sounds being described. Wordsworth in ‘The Prelude' uses it to call upon the simple childhood pleasure of making oneself dizzy. He does this by having a long sentence where the subject and verb occur late in the passage. This achieves the effect of rushing and spinning to an abrupt stop. In addition, one can almost imagine that even though we have stopped the â€Å"solitary cliffs Wheeled by†¦ the earth rolled†¦ † (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 172) e e cummings uses this technique in his poem I (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 202) He relies on the visual effect of the poem to emphasis the falling of one leaf and its oneness. Playful text also uses language to draw attention to it this is achieved, by breaking the rules of language, that is sound, grammar and meaning Just like in literary usage. Graffiti although regarded as being antisocial and illegal is an area where English is used in a playful and entertaining way to highlight a particular comment on social issues or give voice to those sub groups that have been denied access to mainstream. Because of the very nature of graffiti, it tends to be short and succinct. The Graffiti â€Å"Glory to God in the High St† (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 10) by deleting a single letter from the angel's message to the Shepard's, the graffiti satirises the original Christmas message and reflects the commercialization of Christmas. This is achieved by playing on the sounds and the meaning of the two words Highest and High St. An example of iconic graffiti that is a thought process would be â€Å"Dsylexia rules KO† The popular press also use puns and word play in their headlines e. g. â€Å"Belly Nice (model Naomi Campbell with bare stomach), Wedding Prez (President Clinton unexpectedly attends a wedding)† (Maybin and Mercer, 1996, p. 17). They by virtue of being tabloid newspapers need to capture the readers' attention quickly and be able to express in a short headline the nature of the article. Therefore, by using headlines like â€Å"Belly Nice† they play on the phrase â€Å"very nice† in referring to the bare stomach and associating it to her second name Campbell. Another area that breaks the rules of English in a playful way is advertising. Advertising uses all the literary techniques of foregrounding to sell the product, image or idea. In the P&O advertisement, the text is simple; it has rhyme, rhythm and repetition, and seems at first glance to be a simple, child's first reader. However, each line does not have the object. It is only at the end that one realises that the last word is the object of the previous lines. In conclusion after having looked at the various distinctive features of literary and playful usage of text one can see that writers, poets, graffiti writers, journalist and the advertisers use and break the rules of English to foreground there ideas in a creative, original and imaginative way.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Best Buy company in 2012

Best Buy company in 2012 The company best buy was facing several issues in 2012. To improve its financial position, the company launched a strategic plan it called â€Å"renew blue†. The plan called for strengthening relationships with vendors, revamping stores, increasing same-store sales, eliminating unnecessary costs, and ramping up Best Buy’s online business. The company has been able to reduce cost by closing underperforming stores, shrinking its workforce, and making supply chain efficiencies. It aims to reduce cost further by reducing product returns, replacements, and damages, and by streamlining its logistics and supply chain, as well as its procurement process. To mitigate competition, Best Buy has arranged to open stores-within-a-store with certain key suppliers. In response to competition with Amazon, Best Buy is now highly focused on growing its online business. The company has extended its online sales distribution network with its ship-from-store concept. As part of its turnaround strategy, Best Buy is also revamping its stores and trying to encourage more robust store traffic. Best Buy is closing underperforming stores, optimizing space, and improving the ease with which customers can shop in stores. One of Best Buy’s optimization goals is to avoid out-of-stock situations online, especially during holiday season. Best Buy increased inventory availability by rolling out its ship-from-store concept. This has helped boost online sales, as previously, products were shipped only from select stores. Best buy announced that it would fight show rooming by offering low-price guarantees online as well as at its retail stores. Best Buy sp ent millions of dollars on a holiday TV campaign to combat show rooming. Thus Best Buy is aggressively implementing restructuring initiatives to take back market share. Some of these initiatives include cost-reduction measures, online business expansion, and the sale of underperforming stores.Tyco was accused of corporate fraud in 2002. Its top management was accused of misusing the company’s loan system and misrepresenting the company’s financial status. The first thing the company did in its effort to transformation is the replacement of executive position. The entire corporate management team needed to be changed. They established new systems, hired new talent, and set a new strategic direction for the company. The company followed the highest standards of business practices and ethics, which made it easier to recruit high-quality talent. Many of the former board members had had strong financial, rather than operational, backgrounds. There weren’t clear delineations between finance and operations management. as a part of the restructuring process the audit function reports directly to the board’s audit committee rather than to the CFO; utilizes a more formalized risk-based planning process; and leverages rigorous audit techniques to better monitor internal controls, the integrity of the company’s financial information, and compliance with company policies and procedures. With a mix of board members who have run large public and private organizations, and who have financial and accounting expertise, today the company have a stronger orientation toward operations and toward a philosophy of controllership and accountability.

Choose a quote from a journal article and use it to put forth your own Essay

Choose a quote from a journal article and use it to put forth your own argument - Essay Example The term hegemony, historically, signifies a city, state or country that has exerted power and might over other cities and/or countries, indirectly rather than directly through military rule. Modern day use of the word hegemony refers to a group of people exercising power over another group, suppressing and influencing their existence and aspects of life. A very common example found in society today could be of the wealthy and rich class being able to exercise might over the poor solely due to the latter’s ability to utilize money and wealth to affect elements of society and control the lives of the poor. The subaltern is a highly complex term that is used to refer to certain kinds of dispossessed people who fit the model of the oppressor or the oppressed as the individual so marginalized that he/she does not even carry the ‘voice’ of the oppressed. So we can say that if the oppressor is ‘Other’ and the oppressed is ‘Self’, then the subal tern is the one invisible to both the Other and the Self. Some scholars suggest that the term subaltern reflects the term proletariat. â€Å"Some thinkers use it in a general sense to refer to marginalized groups and the lower classes – a person rendered without agency by his or her social status.† (Young, Robert J.C., 2003). ... Reflecting the concepts of hegemony and subalternty in the Karl Marx’s theory, we can say that the subalterns are under the spell of false consciousness; a state that does not allow them to realize the fact that they are being oppressed by the hegemons, and accept their condition and position in society as fate. They are under the false impression that nothing can absolutely be done to improve their statuses. Since hegemony is practiced through the use of wealth, the hegemons have used the value of their wealth and riches to form a structure called the media and have used it’s influential power to further marginalize and oppress the subalterns. The subalterns are said to have no ‘voice’ and no strength, therefore it is believed impossible for these groups to rebel and earn their positions and statuses. â€Å"There's really no such thing as the 'voiceless'. There are only the deliberately silenced, or the preferably unheard.†Ã‚  (Arundhati Roy). It is clearly evident that the subalterns did not by cause of nature exist in such a marginalized, oppressed and ‘voiceless’ form, rather these characteristics were forced upon them by hegemony. However, according to Karl Marx’s theory, the subalterns will eventually develop a voice for themselves, a rebellious voice and utilize it’s power. Following the theory of Historical Materialism, the subalterns will gradually through a lot of push and pull, emerge out of their state of false consciousness and realize that they are being led falsely astray by their oppressors. The power and influence of wealth and the media will no longer be able to play their roles in creating an illusion of helplessness for the subalterns to believe in; instead