Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Poet’s emphasis Essay

Although poem A contain a thematic unity but it is manifested that poet’s emphasis remained on creating a homogeneous lyrical whole instead of developing the theme in an elaborative way and in an elevated poetical manner. There is weak sentimentality that pervades the whole poem. The most important defect of the poem is that it takes into account a wide range of human roles in life and tried to culminate this human experience into the ultimate reality of death. In this attempt, poet fails to create a unifocal and forceful impact about death in the mind of the reader. Although the main though is not traditional or orthodox but poet does not present any philosophical facets, psychological impact or any other unique reflection about death. Furthermore, he is unable to manifest a great skill in making use of the arts and artifices of verse. So poem is an abject failure. Poet is unable to enjoy the visual delight of death or suffer from it pain and terror. He only changes from one role to another role with the sad demise of the first. Personal Preferences Ranking Poem F Poem C Poem D Poem E Poem B Poem A Poem F The theme is same as other poem ranked above but thematic expressions is the most important thing that elevates this poem above all other poems. Thematic expression manifested in a subtle and delicate way. So delicacy of thought mingles with height of literary expression. Subtle metaphorical attributions to seasons are another important feature of the poem. He does not rely on a single set of metaphors or symbol but he uses the financial symbols in the next quatrain to covey his message and skillfully relates it to the main theme of death and destruction. The most beautiful line of the poem is line 7 where he terminates the effect of death. He is of the view that by reproduction and regeneration, one can produce a replica of his own self, so death can not destroy him. He can conquer the death and destruction. Hence these off-spring(s) will make â€Å"thee living†. So poet has pitched the though at a higher level as compared with other poet and have utilized his language skills to create an effective expression to convey that style. Poet does not show any mystery or fascination about death. If death results in despair and terror, it also brings rest and peace. Poet negates both these conventional concept and gives a new idea that death does not terminate life if one wishes to. He can reproduce siblings like him and this is a continuation of his life. There is not magical abstraction in the poem and everything is presented and represented in clear manner with the help of concrete imagery.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

African Americans and the Cold War.

Compare the two articles and comment on how the Cold War impacted upon African Americans during the asses. Historically, the treatment of African Americans was atrocious: unfair and dehumidifying. Throughout the asses, this racial discrimination was noisily protested against and the recognition from governments allowed the African American voice to reach its zenith.The Cold War and the intense ideological disputes between the United States and the Soviet Union aided in the strengthened awareness towards his inequality and led to a slight advancement of the societal position for African Americans. However, with the improvement of the African American voice, coinciding with the war at hand, came governmental fear, resulting in public manipulation and covert force. African American's lived in a consciously limited and divided world, which stifled their individuality and independence.Richard Wright, a Negro who lived through this mistreatment, became the first Negro to highlight the inju stice through protest writing. Wright â€Å"was the angriest, most honest and outspoken black writer†l f the time and his books offer insight into the lengths of racial discrimination and inequality he and other Blacks were subjected to. He made it â€Å"clearer than any black American writer had ever done that as a black man he was not allowed and not able to feel that he was a full-blooded' American†2, but was expected to adhere to the enforced racial hierarchy and â€Å"live his life acting out a demeaning and ludicrous role†3.Life for African American's consisted of constant degradation, with â€Å"daily insults and petty humiliations†4, and customary segregation – the Blacks of America ere inhibited from employment opportunities, denied good education, forced to sit behind Anglo-Saxons (Whites') in public transportation, with enforced racially segregated public housing and most hotels and eateries being closed to those of African descent. Ulti mately, the possibilities for African Americans were limited and they were generally treated as inferior beings.The Cold War tactically exposed the United States' practice of gross inequality and discrimination. The conflict between political ideologies (Communism vs. McCarthy/Democracy) during the War established a central foundation for the movement towards racial equality. In an attempt to gain more party members, the Communist Party capitalized on the African American's protests – â€Å"circulating petitions on police brutality, employment discrimination, and anticipating legislation†¦ Trying to gauge individuals' openness (to the Communist Party)†5.They vigorously and passionately lashed the United States for their treatment of the Blacks while â€Å"actively promoting a racial Justice agenda†6: pushing for unions to include Negroes, campaigning for the desegregation of sousing, encouraging black writers and artists and providing opportunities for blac k leadership. With the promise to combat racism, and being â€Å"the only white organization in the country that paid serious attention to the issues of race and civil rights†7, Communism attracted more membership, especially from those of African descent with the proportion of Black members doubling.With the numbers supporting the American government declining and the â€Å"difficulty sustaining the smooth image of racial progress†8, the government made every effort to counter the Soviet's propaganda. The American politics depraved the Soviets assertions with a public declaration stating that â€Å"despite certain inequalities and conditions which exist, the American way of life provides ample opportunity to correct these conditions through democratic processes†¦The American Negro, down to the poorest sharecropper, is better off than the vast majority of Stalin's subjects†9 while the â€Å"US embassies and consulates throughout the world distributed bookl ets showing the great progress that had been made on race matters†10. As the propaganda hostility dominated newspapers and generic conversation, the United States' developments awards civil rights were largely and continuously broadcasted, with the â€Å"American's†¦ Making much mileage out of the Supreme Court's school-desegregation decision in 1954†³11.Essentially, the Cold War heightened the awareness of racial discrimination and made the unfairness an international issue. The open rebellion against racial prejudice in the United States, meshing with Cold War concerns, evoked fears within the United States' government. The American government grew suspicious of internal communist subversion and as a result the loyalty of all free men', and especially the loyalty of African American's was deemed questionable.With this anxiety, came the intrusion of the loyalty program. This program, introduced by President Harry. S. Truman and adopted by Senator Joseph McCarthy, e stablished a framework for a wide-ranging and powerful government apparatus – the Federal Bureau of Investigations – to perform loyalty checks on every employee. If the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) had ‘reasonable grounds' to doubt an employee's allegiance, he or she would be dismissed.The FBI â€Å"could not tolerate independent thinkers either, as there was one thing considered every bit as bad as being a Red (communist), and hat was being a Black who spoke out against American racism†12, thus â€Å"individuals who had been active in progressive causes, particularly in the African American freedom struggle, were targeted and disproportionately affected†13. Richard Wright and Annie Lee Moss are two African American's who were subjected to the subtle terror of the Loyalty Programs investigations.Both Wright and Moss held supporting attitudes towards the progression of civil rights. In the early ‘ass Wright was under US government sur veillance, assumed for his books protesting against racial scarification, and â€Å"one Sunday in April 1953, Wright was questioned by a member from the Senate Judiciary Committee about his subversive books and his association with the Communist Party, asked to inform on others†¦ Receiving a warning that he could be subpoenaed in front of McCarthy committee†14.Wright's books were, and all rebellious books, were removed from the United States Information Service libraries – a subtle way the government silenced opponents. Annie Lee Moss, whom experienced accusations of disloyalty, was used and still remains â€Å"an enduring symbol of Cold War politics†1 5. Annie Lee Moss was a clerk in the General Accounting Office (GAO), working in close proximity to sensitivity information, and was, â€Å"it seemed, living proof of the possibilities of the American (African) dream†.Moss encountered several accusations of being a member of the communist party, and wa s suspended from her Job twice, only to be reinstated when the â€Å"GAO Loyalty Board determined there were no ‘reasonable grounds' to believe that she was disloyal†16. The allegations and innocence of Moss was biblically broadcasted on â€Å"March 1954, when Edward R. Morrow dedicated an episode of his television news how, See It Now, to her appearance before Senator Joseph McCarthy Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations†17.The broadcast â€Å"demonstrated that McCarthy carelessness threatened the rights of American citizens, but that there were others in the American government committed to defending those rights†18. With the increased amount of hope for African American's, came new forms of discriminatory struggles. The Cold War had a pivotal impact on life for African American's. Though the Blacks of America were victims of new forms of discrimination, ultimately, the Cold War revealed the contradictions in American democracy: how could the United

Monday, July 29, 2019

Character Analysis Of Hamlet

Character Analysis Of Hamlet Hamlet is very brave in that he does not fear a challenge. Hamlet at times can prove to be very cautious, at times he thinks when he should act, however when you are king there can be advisors for such matters. â€Å"Beware Of entrance to a quarrel; but being in, Bear’t that the opposed may beware of thee. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice; Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, But not express’d in fancy; rich, not gaudy; For the apparel oft proclaims the man.† (William Shakespeare, â€Å"Hamlet†, Act 1 Scene 3) Many times in history leaders should have thought, when instead they acted on impulse, for example Odysseus, from â€Å"The Odyssey† when he and his men escaped the island of the Cyclops instead of tucking his tail and being happy with his slight victory after taking numerous loses, he instead taunted the Cyclops and brought harm near his crew and to himself. For Odysseus di d not know that the father of this monster was the water god Poseidon. Odysseus like all heroes, his main downfall was hubris, and because Hamlet thinks so before he acts he avoids mistakes like this adding to his attributes as a good leader. He can also be as brave as Hercules, for instance when he travels to see the Ghost of his father for the first time, he could have sunk back and ran from the very sight of it, but instead he ran after it and confronted the Ghost and demanded answers. He did not fear what he could not understand as his companions that accompanied him did, instead he was assertive and got to the bottom of the matter. Another account when Hamlet showed quick thinking and bravery was when he intercepted a letter from his Uncle Claudius to the King of England ordering the death of Hamlet on his arrival to England, instead of running and hiding Hamlet used his wits and changed the letter from his head to be had to that of his deliverers. Then in a challenge of swords by Laretes, known to be one of the very best swordsman in his land, Hamlet does not back down. Hamlet takes the challenge head on proving his worth in battle. The fact that Hamlet is his father’s son is very important, he was there behind his father always watching and observing how a king did and should behave, he saw his father’s bravery and his mistakes and Hamlet could use all these experiences to make himself a better king even better than his father. He is of a bloodline of kings, a tradition that is to be kept and Hamlet would have been next in line. The job of taking the throne was in his blood when he assumed the responsibility, ready or not he would have known what to do. â€Å"There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.† (William Shakespeare, â€Å"Hamlet†, Act 2 scene 2)

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Management Insight Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Management Insight - Research Paper Example g days is known to adhere to ethical practices then when the time comes in the future for placing a person on a position which requires a flawless record then this trait might prove to be useful. Similarly if one has been active in Social Responsibility programs since their early days then the experience gained in this can be used in a manner which is beneficial to both the organization and the society (Loviscky et al., 2007). Businesses in search of new markets and more capital are increasingly expanding not only within the country they originate but to other countries as well. This has given it a global touch and has made the decision making process all the more complex in this environment. Taking into account the conditions of the country it is operating in is of vital importance (Levy, Beechler, Taylor, & Boyacigiller, 2007) I would add IT management as another key outcome to modern management which will be due to the ever-changing nature of businesses processes and the technology being used in it. If I am equipped with this skill then it is less likely that I will be rendered redundant in the future. Loviscky., Greg., Trevino., Linda., Jacobs., & Rick. (2007). Assessing Managers Ethical Decision-making: An Objective Measure of Managerial Moral Judgment.  Journal of Business Ethics,  73(3), 263-285. Levy, O., Beechler, S., Taylor, S. T., & Boyacigiller, N. A. (2007). What We Talk about When We Talk about Global Mindset: Managerial Cognition in Multinational Corporations.  Journal of International Business Studies,38(2),

The Game of Love and Chance Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Game of Love and Chance - Assignment Example The plot is appropriate in its context and makes sense. The plot has sense in it and very easy to follow. The plot also is very surprising and not that much predictable. â€Å"The Game of love and Chance† is charmingly written to show the inadequacies of the servant taking the masters’ role and the masters taking the servants’ role. The realism portrayed is how love can control someone once truly fallen in love by the other person. Silvia truly falls in love with Dorante not realizing that she has already fallen in love with the real suitor and the same is also true with Dorante; as Edwin Wilson puts it, â€Å"the manner in which a performance depicts the real world (Wilson, 46).† it is very hard for such a coincidence to take place in the real world; this is what contains the unrealistic portion of the same. The characters hoist their double standard in the entire play; in the first place, the mistress and maid conduct an expository dialog in a corridor to the accompaniment of much screaming and slamming. But while Trish as Silvia undergoes these motions with intelligence, a wit, and a command of changing tones that turn to be even keener as the day progresses; this is her excellent performance. Gemma as Lisette seems and sounds as if she was watching a carry on movie, all flutter and twitter and causal of innuendo. This seems to be a hit for equality; in most occasions, male comics have the monopoly on being crude and lewd. The costumes are ancient which suit the sexual and social context. The actors performed their roles appropriately which made the audience believe in the roles they were having. None of the actors seemed to miss the point while on stage; this was evident when the actors changed characters. The set drew the real world at the back of audiences’ mind which made t he performance be livelier (Marivaux, Pierre, and Neil 87). The play utilized enough space to host different scenes that made the play be interesting and made

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Case report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Case report - Essay Example One issue facing the Chatime Company is in the product life cycle planning in which the product must go through some stages to enhance its marketability. The company’s head wants to open more branches to sell their tea in the Asian market. Introducing the brand in the new market will require a lot of market research and promotions to determine the likes of the new customers (Aladwani, 2001). The management is against the idea as they feel that it will be a difficult task to undertake since their market is composed of the Chinese. The product life cycles stages are its development, introduction, growth, maturity, and its decline. Products in the first three stages will require an intensive market research to establish them in the market. The product also requires a lot of development and advertisement to enable the consumers know that they exist in the market (Strategic Management, 2015). Focused leadership is very important in establishing a successful market for the product. Decision-making in this company is an issue owing to the fact that Zhao and the other Franchise are not in agreement as to where to open the new outlet. There are other tea stores such as Gongcha, which will offer stiff competition to Chatime products. Bore they see any substantial benefits from the new outlet, the company will spend a lot of money and other resources to convince their new client that they are offering the best product. Another reason that makes the decision a problem is due to the competition that already exist in the beverage market, which will require strong leadership and creativity to enable them capture as many customers as possible. The challenge is that all the leaders of the company do not support the idea although Zhao has the support of a few of them. The company will therefore, need to focus on product differentiation and leadership to win the market. The product life cycle planning will

Friday, July 26, 2019

Reading response 8 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reading response 8 - Assignment Example The author builds his hypothesis that some characteristics of modern language might seem to be â€Å"fossils† of the previous stages of evolution. Jackendoff’s explanation of the use of symbols is presented in a complex manner where the actual purpose of the author is lost, according to me. He gives examples of different words uttered by a child and cites literature as the background of his discussion. He mentions that at a very early stage a child can distinguish between proper and common nouns. He then switches suddenly to use of situational one word and also single word answers which he perceives as â€Å"fossils† of the â€Å"one-word stage† of evolution of language. However the main essence of expression without syntax and yet symbolic meaning is not clearly expressed especially when he compares with the systematic yes and no utterances. In certain instances the author himself does not seem to be clear about the reality and it is more of an opinion based approach when he thinks that the learning process of apes is like children initiating habit of reading and is quite effortful in nature. However one keen and realistic observation he makes here is the distinction between grammar and vocabulary learning. A person with good vocabulary might have lesser sense of grammar. The ability to imitate plays the important role here and here the author’s inference shows clarity and logical deduction. The author brings up an interesting topic of word order which might affect the essence of communication. He however does not explain this more simplistically with the help of grammar and syntax. It is difficult to understand what the author is trying to point out in this section. Is he trying to say that communication or expression should follow grammar in modern system of language? He even brings in the cases of special children to whom learning signs is the only option to express them. So is grammar necessary when symbolic expressions or

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Managing Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Managing Change - Essay Example Lewin’s change model: The model has three stages, these are: Unfreeze, Change and Refreeze. The unfreeze stage involves convincing the organization that the change is necessary. This is done by artificially creating a minor crisis that leads to the required motivation for the change. Change stage owing to the uneasiness faced by the people in the unfreeze stage, the employees start believing and acting in the direction of the change. Some employees take to change quickly where as some people who are genuinely affected by the change take time to adopt the change. In the final stage termed ‘refreeze’, as the change is being accepted, the employees are supported in order to help them to adapt to the change in a better manner. Discuss the external and internal forces that create the need for organizational change There are two types of forces those generate the need for a change in an organization. These are: i) external forces: Industry Standards, Government Regulati ons, Technology trends, Socio-Economical aspects. ii) Internal forces: Strategic decisions, Changes in technology and Employee attitudes etc. External forces are beyond the control of an organization, e.g. personal computers replaced the electronic typewriters, the employees had to be trained on the use of personal computers. Similarly, in the case of internal forces, if the company needs to change its business from services to production then the organization will need employees with different skill sets, hence the change. Kotter's Eight Steps for Leading Organizational Change: Professor John Kotter of Harvard Business School has mentioned Kotter’s eight steps for leading organizational change in his book â€Å"Leading Change†. These eight steps are: 1. Establish the sense of urgency – this sense can be created by very honest and clear discussions depicting the real state of affairs like poor sales figures. If people start talking about it this will lead to mot ivation, hence the sense of urgency for the change will appear. 2. Form a strong coalition: Coalition will not get formed unless the organization identifies few forward looking leaders. After these leaders have been identified, they must be committed. Their weak areas are worked upon to make them better leaders. 3. Create a vision: The vision of the organization needs to be created, this is summarized and familiarized by the leaders. A strategy is then worked out for implementing the vision. 4. Communicate the vision: The vision is discussed and talked about amongst the employees, the idea is to address the queries and anxieties of the workers. All types of changes are linked with the vision. 5. Remove Obstacles: After the system is in place for working out the change, the people who oppose this change need to be identified. The barriers and obstacles are also identified and then the needful is done to remove these issues. 6. Plan and create short term wins: Initially change is impl emented in the projects those are certain. This is done to pose confidence in employees about the change. 7. Consolidate improvements and produce more

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

LG Electronics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

LG Electronics - Essay Example Recently, it has included Mobile Phones with various specifications in its enriched product line up. The company’s annual turnover in the year 2009 has recorded 13089 crores (LG Electronics, 2012). In relevant to the company’s various products, the two divisions i.e. the home appliances and the electronics goods are located on the Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG) where the upper right quadrant is the electronics division and the lower left quadrant is the appliance division. The BCG Matrix introduced by Boston Consulting Group, is an instrument that allows the company to evaluate and to classify its products as well as services. Furthermore, it is a decision making tool that helps to balance the activities of an organisation related to the products that make profits and signify growth in order to sustain the future of the company. The matrix helps to implement the development policies of the company. The BCG matrix positions the products in two ways, namely, the rat e of growth of the market and the market share of the product contrary to its competitors (Luxinnovation G.I.E, 2008). Findings The structure of BCG matrix consists of four quadrants namely, Stars, Question marks, Cash cows and Dogs. In this context, the two divisions of the company are located on the Question marks and Cash cows. ... The company emphasised on capturing higher market share by sales maximisation. However, the presence of fierce competition due to a number of competitors such as Samsung which offers products targeted to the entire age groups and classes of society, barred LG from penetrating into new business markets and attaining higher share of the market. The cash cows quadrant consists of products that generate higher profits in a short period of time which need to be replaced because of the low growth in the future, as a result of that the investments are comparatively lower. Moreover, the products in cash cows should be profitable as they are able to finance other activities in the stars and the question marks (Scribd Inc, 2012). LG’s home appliances are its core products that the company is based upon. The 60 inch Plasma Display Panels were the world’s first, to be introduced by the company in the year 1998 (LG Electronics, 2012). In the following years, the company developed va rious creative and innovative products which ultimately raised huge market share and facilitated the company to generate huge profits. Its low cost features and maintenance free appliances have ensured the company’s products to be present in almost all the households thereby, satisfying and growing among its targeted segment, mostly the females in the family. Recommendations The smart phones introduced in the markets are required to go through a drastically innovative change that will allow the product to mark a presence in the market and compete against its rivals. It has been noted that the company priced its mobile phone devices at a comparatively cheaper prices in order to target the middle and lower class people. However, in following this strategy the company relied more on providing

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Construction management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Construction management - Essay Example 324). The Site Waste Management Plan regulations were introduced in the United Kingdom and particularly in England (, 2008), due to the huge amounts of construction wastes that were abandoned at construction sites. According to the SWMP regulations, all construction projects in England with a value of  £300,000 must have a Site Waste Management Plan (, 9 January 2013). The regulations were passed in February 2008; however, they came into full force in April 2008. Therefore, â€Å"the regulations do not apply to any project planned before 6 April, if construction work commenced before 1 July 2008†¦apply to all projects with a value of  £300,000 or more,....additional...requirements for projects with a value of  £500,000 or more† (Hughes and Ferrett, 2011, p. 640). Through the Site Waste Management Plan regulations, a plan for managing the disposal of waste during the whole of a construction project is provided (Wrap, 2013). Using information based on the design of a building at the preconstruction stage, estimated quantities of waste that a site can produce are identified using the Site Waste Management Plan. Consequently, the best decisions on the most economical ways to manage construction waste are also identified. Therefore, the reason behind the introduction of the Site Waste Management Plan regulations 2008, â€Å"is to ensure that the element of waste generation is thought about right from the design and specification stage and facilitate the selection of the construction methods and materials that would effectively minimise waste generation† (Chartered Institute of Building , 2010, p. 199). Other objectives of the Site Waste Management plans 2008 are also to boost the amount of construction waste that is found, reused, and recycled, and improve the efficiency of construction materials. Prevention of illegal waste action is another objective of the

Level of Stress Among Call Centre Employees Essay Example for Free

Level of Stress Among Call Centre Employees Essay Level of Stress among Call Centre Employees Submission date: 8th January, 2008 Submitted By: Ayesha Khalid Ayesha Sarfaraz Nazool-e-Tabassum Saira Khan Mussaffa Butt Submitted to Dr. Farah Malik Associate Professor Department of Psychology Government College University Lahore Introduction Stress is used as a general label for a vast complex, interdisciplinary area of interest and study, much of which is health related. Most often stress is related to personal discomfort associated with an over demanding or distressing lifestyle situation (Adams Bromley, 1998) stress is a part of everyday life, we experience stress each day, although it is acknowledged that the degree of stress varies considerably depending on the complexity of the situation and availability of support. For some, the stress is manageable and work or home life is not affected. For others, however, the stress reaches a critical point where there may be a need for medical or psychiatric assistance (Weiten, 2001). The causes of stress can include any event or occurrence that a person considers a threat to his or her coping strategies or resources. Researchers generally agree that a certain degree of stress is a normal part of a living organisms response to the inevitable changes in its physical or social environment, and that positive, as well as negative, events can generate stress as well as negative occurrences (Frey, 2002). There can be innumerable stress factors since different individuals react differently to the same stress conditions. Extreme stress situations for an individual may prove to be mild for another, for yet another person the situations might not qualify as stressing at all. (http://www. lifepositive. com/stress. html). The fact that women report and exhibit higher level of psychological distress than men has been explained in three major ways. The methodological artifact explanation suggests that women are socialized to be more expressive and therefore will admit more emotional symptoms than men in response to the standard psychological stress (Frey, 2002). The stress exposure argument suggests that women face more stressor in general or more severe, persistent stressors than men. Whereas the vulnerability argument suggest that women lack coping resources such as high self esteem, a sense of mastery or appropriate coping strategies for handling the stressors to which they are exposed. Newman (1984 c. f. Eckenrode, 1991) suggested that women over report minor symptoms that inflate over all distress scores (Eller, 2000). Stress in humans in general results from interactions between persons and their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. The element of perception indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in personality, as well as differences in physical strength or general health (Frey, 2002). Stress is often termed as a twentieth century syndrome, born out of mans race towards modern progress and its ensuing complexities. For that matter, causes such as a simple flight delay to managing a teenage child at home can put you under stress. Listing the causes of stress is tricky yet replete with practical diversity (http://www. lifepositive. com/stress. html). General cause of stress include primarily, Threat; a perceived threat will lead a person to feel stressed. This can include physical threats, social threats, financial threat, and so on. Fear; Fear leads to imagined outcomes, which are the real source of stress. Uncertainty; When people are not certain, they are unable to predict, and hence feel they are not in control, and hence may feel fear or feel threatened by that which is causing the uncertainty (http://www. workstress. net/causes. htm). Apart from certain general causes another reason is cognitive dissonance; it is when there is a gap between what people do and what they think, then the outcome experience is cognitive dissonance, which is felt as stress.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Fredrick Jackson Turner Essay Example for Free

Fredrick Jackson Turner Essay Fredrick Jackson Turner was an American Historian who examined the unique characteristics that defined American Culture.   Turner was a well educated man receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884 and his Masters Degree in 1888.   He continued his education at John Hopkins University and received a PhD in history.   He taught most of his professional life at the University of Wisconsin and then Harvard in 1910.   Rise of the West, and Significance of Sections in American History for which he received the Pulitzer Prize have become standards in the study of American History.    He is most well known for his â€Å"Frontier Thesis† which he developed in 1893.   Shortly, after the United States Census Bureau in 1890 declared the American Frontier officially closed, Jackson’s interest was peaked and he set out to study and analyze America’s relationship with it’s own frontier.   In   1893 he publicly spoke about this thesis in Chicago at the World’s Columbian Exposition. He stated â€Å"Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West.†Ã‚   In 1921, Fredrick Jackson Turner published a full length text titled The Frontier in American History.   In it he explores his thesis which stated The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development (Turner 1)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner’s fascination with the frontier and probably   his inspiration for studying and understanding the importance of the American Frontier in American History stems back to his childhood.   He grew up in in Portage, Wisconsin.   His backyard bumped right against the meeting of two bodies of water Fox River and Wisconsin River.   The small town had many characteristics that would have been found in frontier town.   When he describes his childhood he tells of the Native American teepees where he fished as a boy.   Native Americans were often in   town to sell various pieces of craft and jewelry to the local stores.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To understand America and its culture it was extremely important to understand the frontier and America’s connection to it.   Turner believed that the frontier â€Å"Americanized Americansâ€Å".   This Americanization lasted close to 300 years, starting at the colonization of the New England coast and continuing until the west was completely settled.   The free land offered in the west, the frontier, was a safety net which offered property ownership opportunities to people who traditionally could no afford to own anything.   In the text of The Frontier of American History, he comments â€Å"So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power† (Turner 32). Discontent and poverty revolts were almost unheard in those 300 years.   He argues that the frontier produces and shapes a particular type of man who is full â€Å"of coarseness and strengthacuteness and inquisitiveness, (of) that practical and inventive turn of mind(full of) restless and nervous energy that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom.†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Turner 37).   Turner’s believed that the western movement was the main factor contributing to the basis of American’s institutions and culture.   Conditions of living and conquering the wilderness permanently altered the European settlers of the New England coastline to a new national breed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner goes on to compare the American Frontier to Europe.   In explaining their similarities, he states† What   the Mediterranean Sea was to   the Greeks, breaking   the bonds of custom,   offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities,   the   Ã‚  ever-retreating   frontier has been to   the United States directlyâ€Å" (Turner 38).   Turner continues to explain that to   the while Europe had it’s own frontiers, it effected them â€Å"more remotelyâ€Å". Turner believed that the frontier shaped the American character and the closing of the Western Frontier signified the United States graduating from it’s initial development into something much more mature. Turner summaries by commenting â€Å" four centuries from   the discovery   of America, at   the end of a hundred years of life under   the Constitution,   the   frontier has gone, and with its going has closed   the first period of   Ã‚  American   history† (Turner 38).   In The Frontier of American History, while he writes about America as an example he gives a detailed general explanation that he believes could be used in understanding other nation’s cultural growth patterns.   Fredrick Turner believes that the growth and settlement is the first period of progress in any nation’s development.   This expansion is followed by followed by periods of social and economic development.   Each of which is frontier all it’s own.   Turner explains with an example: Stand at Cumberland Gap and watch the procession of civilization, marching single filethe buffalo following the trail to the salt springs, the Indian, the fur-trader and hunter, the cattle-raiser, the pioneer farmerand the frontier has passed by. Stand at South Pass in the Rockies a century later and see the same procession with wider intervals between (Turner 12)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   He believed that the American West created the first truly free man.   The European Frontier was nothing more than people recreating Old World values and deferring to authority.   The frontier in America had no law, no authority, and men lived by their wits.   America thinks of it’s frontier as being within the country not at the edge.   There is no line which separates the frontier from settled land.   America’s frontier is transient and terrestrial.  Ã‚   However, the European frontier is fixed, and completely permanent.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner’s research and thesis contrasted strikingly with his historic contemporaries who believed that America was based on Europe.   And it was the European historical legacy brought over with the colonists that gave America it’s uniqueness.   Fredrick Turner believed that the American Frontier and the surrounding experiences should be respected and spoke about of with dignity.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Of course there are several flaws in his thesis.   He failed to speak about the effect of the American Frontier on women and minorities.   Turner’s theory was deemed ethnocentric and nationalistic.   His premise also showed a large separation between rural American and the future urban or city culture.  Ã‚   Another problem with his safety net proposal is that it is not true for anything after the Civil War.   In the slavery ridden South many blacks sought refuge in the frontier before the Civil War.   However, after the Civl War, the poverty stricken south it was impossible for people to have enough money for transportation, and setting up homesteads in the West. It is important to note that Turner’s Frontier Thesis goes head to head with the theory that slavery was the defining factor in American history.   The government actually gave away more free land after the official closing of the American Frontier than in all the years preceding 1890.   Turner’s thesis and research were not, at the time of it’s original, publication embraced.    Much of that coldness he received from his peers was due to his blunt, forceful nature and writing style.   When he spoke about his â€Å"Frontier Thesis†, he commanded his fellow historians to turn their mindset from European history to the American West.   He comments often that American Historians ‘had it all wrong’ and he was right.   His aggressive preaching may have turned other researchers off to even considering his thesis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fredrick Jackson Turner does a good job of fleshing out his thesis.   I do agree that the American Frontier had a huge effect on defining what America is and who Americans are.   I do think that Turner’s â€Å"Frontier Thesis† has it’s problems which I stated above.   I think it is important to point out that understanding the birth of truly American Ideals you must look at several different theories developed by various Historians.   I agree with the points that Fredrick Turner makes.   Especially concerning how settlers of the frontier needed to be self sufficient and self governing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Regardless, if historians agree with Turner or agree to disagree the impact of his â€Å"Frontier Thesis, is indisputable.   He introduced the idea that daily events of regular people make up history that is it is true history.   He nurtured and detailed his belief that the physical land can be a major factor in defining and shaping a culture, particularly the American Culture.   Fredrick Jackson Turner breathed life into the American Western landscape,   letting the Frontier transform from a mere setting to a powerful tool in chiseling the America’s historical and cultural legacy.   Bibliography Hutton, T.R.C. Beating a Dead Horse?: The Continuing Presence of Frederick Jackson Turner in Environmental and Western History. International Social Science Review (2002): 47+. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 Ritchie, Robert C., and Paul Andrew Hutton, eds. Frontier and Region: Essays in Honor of Martin Ridge. 1st ed. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Press, 1997. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1921. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 White, Richard, and Richard White. Chapter Ten When Frederick Jackson TurnerAnd Buffalo Bill Cody BothPlayed Chicago in 1893.   Frontier and Region: Essays in Honor of Martin Ridge. Ed. Robert C. Ritchie and Paul Andrew Hutton. 1st ed. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Press, 1997. 201-211. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Link Between CSR and HRM

Link Between CSR and HRM Corporate social responsibility (CSR) prevails in the past four decades. A great number of companies embed CSR principles into their daily business practices. The CSR practices are always subject to debates. Some researchers agree with the benefits of CSR for organizations, whereas others question the nature of CSR and argue that it conflict with business profitability. Definition of CSR has been developed by various researchers; it varies in different context. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (1999 cited in Viljanen and Lahteenmaki, 2009) defined CSR as is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large. Furthermore, CSR is defined as treating the stakeholders of the firm ethically or in a responsible manner (Hopkins, 2003, p.1, cited in Fenwick and Bierema, 2008). Similarly, in the study by Melynyte and Ruzevicius (2008), CSR was regarded to meet economic, social, environmental and ethical requirements of stakeholders. Moreover, Syed and Kramar (2008) cited the definition of CSR by EU: a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Based on the definition by previous researchers, the author understands CSR from three aspects: 1) Voluntary actions. 2) Concerns of stakeholders, local community and society. 3) The economic, ethical, social and environmental (positive) impacts of business operations. Melynyte and Ruzevicius (2008) summarized CSR activities on the basis of previous research, including ensuring staffs health and safety at work, developing equal rights, providing continuous trainings, being responsible for consumers and customers, decreasing negative impact in environment, generating ecological products and services as well as participating in society activities. In this paper, the author will illustrate two points of views: HRM should be linked to CSR; such a link is still realistic in the current tough economic climate. Both of standpoints are explained on the basis of different perspectives and arguments in previous literature. Part Two: Link between HRM and CSR 2.1 literature debates In this part, four debates are identified, namely, feasibility of such link versus impossibility, classical views versus stakeholder theory, benefits from CSR actions versus CSR without returns, as well as soft HRM versus hard HRM. Winstanley et al (1996) indicated that ethical concerns, such as job insecurity and insufficient regard for the autonomy of staff, should be expressed when criticizing contemporary HRM; it is also important that HR professionals engage with ethical issues. However, some researchers think that the ethical treatment of employees is impossible. Claydon (2000) explained it on the basis of the Marxist perspective on capital and labour relations. He thought that fundamental contradiction exists between capital and labour, so it is impossible to make working conditions more ethical. In addition, Legge (2000)- from the perspective of utilitarianism- indicated that even though it is likely that ethical HRM will be found among the core workers, it is difficult to be found among sub-contracted or agency workers. The study by Friedman (1970 cited in Greenwood, 2002) suggested that business has sole responsibility of making profit for its shareholders and should maximize its profits. He believed that the social responsibility is fundamentally contrary to the principle of free-market economy. This classical view emphasized the sole benefit of shareholders, which was related to ethical egoism; it implies that corporations should pay little attention to building CSR into management system. This classical view was countered by stakeholder theory, which not only presents a conceptual framework of analysis of HRM (Ferrary, 2009), but also offers corporations a new way of thinking organizational responsibilities (Jamali, 2008). The stakeholder theory was defined by Freeman (1984) that managers have a responsibility to attend to all who has a stake in organizations. Similarly, Greenwood and Cieri (2007: 128) indicated managers must act in the interests of stakeholders and management must engage stakeholders in decision-making. Freeman (1984) also gave the definition of stakeholder as any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of organization objectives, consisting of shareholders, employees, customers and suppliers. In addition to traditional interest groups, local communities and environment- regarded as silent stakeholders- should be included (Simmons, 2004 cited in Jamali, 2008). This theory suggested that corporations should turn attention to considerations beyond direct profit maximization, because the needs of shareholders cannot be met without satisfying to some degree the needs of other stakeholders (Jamali, 2008). Since employees are regarded as key stakeholders, corporations must be responsible for staff and take them into consideration to large extent in managerial decision making. It implies that HRM should be linked to CSR. Papasolomou et al (2005) illustrated CSR actions to employees, such as building family-friendly work environment, sharing information with staff, offering equal reward and pay, administering diversity management in terms of selection and promotion, providing training and long-term development to all staff as well as encouraging staff engaging in social activities. Moreover, some researcher (such as Friedman) emphasized that companies should put the profit object first (Woodall and Winstanley, 2000), so CSR actions are minimized. It seems that primacy of the profit motive becomes a primary reason why researchers and managers oppose to connect HRM with CSR or minimize CSR activities. Some researchers questioned whether the company can obtain returns when adopting CSR initiatives (Heugens and Dentchev, 2007). On the contrary, many researchers hold that CSR can offer potential profits and improve long-term corporate profitability. Brammer et al (2007) indicated that it pays off when HRM is linked with CSR, on the ground that CSR is beneficial to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. Similarly, Bohdanowicz and Zientara (2008) considered that corporations can get payoff in the long run if they treated ethically to employees. In addition, CSR play a critical role in enhancing employees job satisfaction and further organizational comm itment, both of which affect employees performance and workplace behavior (turnover and workplace deviation). Melynyte and Ruzevicius (2008) also hold similar views: the combination of CSR and HRM does indirect positive influence to the organizations financial results through influencing staffs morale, job motivation and loyalty to organizations. Furthermore, in the study by Michie and Sheehan-Quinn (2001 cited in Viljanen and Lahteenmaki, 2009), soft HRM approach, named as high-road HRM, regards employees as resource, which is valuable to continuously develop, and makes efforts to increase employee commitment. On the contrary, hard HRM, called as low-road HRM, is lack of organization promise to job security and pay little attention to the staff training. It seems that soft HRM advocate HRM should be linked to CSR whereas hard HRM do not take CSR into account. However, Legge (1995) indicated that even though some corporations make a display of soft HRM, it is hard in reality. 2.2 HRM should be linked with CSR On the basis of analysis of previous academic debates, the author personally supports that HRM should be linked to CSR. It will be explained from four aspects. Above all, it is possible to integrate HRM with CSR, although some writers explained the impossibility of this kind of integration (as mentioned above, Claydon and Legge). In the study by Vuontisjarvi (2006), sub-themes of CSR, which refer to the integration of CSR and HRM, were identified: training and development, employee involvement, job security, employee health and well-being, equal opportunities, work-life balance and diversity management. Many corporations took on a series of HRM practices which is linked with the principle of CSR. In the case of PSA Peugeot Citroen, which is a famous French car manufacturer, diversity management was adopted. This company not only sought diversity workforce through recruiting a ration of non-French employees and secondary school graduates in the local city, but also ensure the equal treatment of each staff and non-discrimination. In 2003, the company recruited 129 non-French employees (including 45 women), who are in position of engineers and managers, which account for 10% of new staff. In addition, age issue also was taken into consideration. In 2003, 60% of new staff were younger than 30; 13% of new staff were older than 40. Furthermore, all employees had equal rights to be informed what vacancies are available because all the information was publicized on the company intranet. Further measures also include offering apprenticeships to people who were difficult to find job. (Syed an d Kramar, 2008) In addition to PSA Peugeot Citroen, many cases- such as retraining programme offered to staff by Deutsche Bank in the climate of redundancy (Syed and Kramar, 2008)- prove the feasibility of integration of CSR and HRM practices. Secondly, according to stakeholder theory, firms not only meet the requirements of shareholders but also satisfy employees. A series of responsible HRM practices- such as work-life balance (offer female employee childcare support or flexible working time) as well as initiatives mentioned above- meet the requirements of staff. Moreover, in addition to money, employees are also provided the the feeling of meaningfulness and possibility to take responsibility for quality of future generations life (Melynyte and Ruzevicius, 2008). That companies offer chance to staff to join social activities meet the psychological needs of employees. Given these reasons, HRM should be linked with CSR. Thirdly, the issue of business profitability becomes the bones of contention. Some researchers refuse to build CSR into HRM practices because of consideration of the corporation profits. However, a lot of research (as mentioned above) indicates that potential profits can be obtained if companies effectively incorporate CSR rules into HRM practices. In the case of Scandic (Bohdanowicz and Zientara, 2008), a famous hotel in Scandinavia, CSR was embedded into HRM, which is a part of Omtanke programme. Scandic strives for treating equally all staff. For instance, when the company planed to design new working clothes, different nationalities of employees were taken into consideration. As a result, headband, a part of uniform, is not compulsory to wear. Moreover, all staff were congregated to discuss what CSR actions to community should be adopted. Employees were offered opportunities of information sharing as well as rights of participation of decision-making. In addition, with regard to employee health, the hotel propagated the information about cancer to employees in the form of lectures; the company also assisted staff to quit smoke through offering guidance. Scandic showed that the firm indeed cared for its staff by implementing these initiatives (equal treatment, information sharing as well as health of employees). The outcome of this study revealed that these responsible HRM practices were beneficial to enhancement of employees job satisfaction (employees feel that they are cared), thereby affecting work performance and behavior. As a result, employees performance well, namely offering the high quality of service for customers and the turnover has decreased, all of which are regarded as potential profits of corporation. Therefore, CSR principles should be integrated into HRM practices because it benefits for company by improving job satisfaction, enhancing organizational commitment, advancing employees performance and decreasing the turnover. Finally, even if CSR is sometimes described as window-dressing, it actually helps corporations to establish good image and reputation, which is conducive to HRM. The company who takes CSR measures is more attractive to candidates (Greening and Turban, 2000, cited in Brammer et al). In modern times, CSR has become the trend, potential employees, especially new graduates, prefer to work in the corporation which has strong social responsibility and good reputation. Likewise, Bohdanowicz and Zientara (2008) indicated that socially responsible company can more likely attract and retain employees who care about green issues. In addition, since the company which integrates HRM with CSR advertises the equal treatment and non-discrimination during recruitment and promotion, potential staff are more likely to apply for this kind of company. Therefore, CSR help the corporation to have competitive edge over other firms which pay little attention to CSR initiatives during recruitment Furthermore, employees are always proud of working in socially responsible firm which has good reputation, thereby they have more loyalty and commitment to the organization, which makes employees stay longer in this company (Bohdanowicz and Zientara 2008). In the case of Babyfood which is famous for socially and environmentally responsible food company, a good reputation is considered as the primary factor enhancing staffs loyalty and motivation. The research show that although employees satisfaction is not pronounced compared with other food companies, and salaries are even lower than average in this industry, staff are still willing to work in this company due to its good reputation. Babyfoods rate of turnover is 20% lower than food industry average. (Lamberti and Lettieri, 2009) In sum, Since CSR, leading to good image of company, is beneficial to recruitment and retaining of employees, CSR should be embedded into HRM. Additional advantages of integration of HRM and CSR were identified in the study of Melynyte and Ruzevicius (2008): establishing partnership environment, increasing customers satisfaction and trust as well as attracting external investments. All in all, HRM should be linked to CSR because of its feasibility and positive effectiveness. 2.3 Links between HRM and CSR HRM refer to the issues in people management and treatment of employees; many CSR approaches stress the significance of meeting the requirements of employees who are regarded as key stakeholder. Therefore, how to deal with employees becomes a key point when analyzing the link between HRM and CSR. In addition, Syed and Kramar (2008) indicated that the integration of HRM and CSR can be achieved when they get support from employers, investors as well as institutions. Melynyte and Ruzevicius (2008) reviewed previous research about links between HRM and CSR and then summarized three forms of links. 1) CSR functions identical to HRM functions (interdependent link). 2) HRM functions making impact on CSR (SR activities emerging from HRM). 3) CSR functions making direct or indirect impact on HRM (how SR activities make impact on HRM). The first one includes removing child and enforced labor, establishing healthy and safe work environment, safeguard individual rights, offering job security, producing the process of justice, ensuring equal treatment of staff and diversity management, designing reasonable and flexible working hours (e.g. holiday time and work at night) as well as equal pay and welfare benefits. Secondly, HRM functions can influence CSR. Many practices can be identified. a) HR manager can plan and initiate CSR activities, such as mobilizing employees to recycle paper. b) The process of recruitment, selection and dismissal can be judicial and transparent. c) Managers share information with employees and staff participate in decision-making. d) When companies are faced with changes, HR manager still need to take social responsibility into consideration and ensure staff rights. e) Corporations provide continuous training to employees. f) Employers strive for meeting staff needs, such as addressing the issue of work-life balance and providing medical insurance. Finally, CSR functions also influence HRM. For example, while recruiting, CSR activities are advertised in order to attract competent candidates. In addition, social responsibility issues are introduced to staff. Moreover, employees engage in the CSR activities initiated by companies they work in. Furthermore, CSR can be used as an element of the system of appraisal, reward and promotion (Syed and Kramar, 2008). Part three: the link between HRM and CSR in the circumstance of global financial crisis In the current social-economic environment, global financial crisis is ongoing, thereby leads to mass restructuring and redundancies. A number of HR actions are conducted to react to the economic crisis. Many debates about CSR or ethics and HRM emerge. Based on different perspectives in precious research, the author will explain her own view: in the climate of global financial crisis the link between HRM and CSR is still realistic. Mankelow (2008) indicated that responsible HRM are adopted because employees are regarded as key resource to maintain competitive edge in market. The purpose of CSR actions to employees is to improve work efficiency and increase business profitability. It implies that although the importance of CSR is admitted, it after all services for the business profits and is inferior to the significance of corporation benefits. In the current financial crisis, it is no doubt that companies fight with survival firstly and CSR may be neglected. In addition, He suggested that socially responsible activities to staff are subject to certain conditions. It seems that CSR should base on appropriate economic conditions; it is a challenge to connect CSR with HRM in the face of tough economic environment (Mankelow, 2008). Although the link between HRM and CSR is questioned in current environment (can company can afford CSR in global financial crisis? Or CSR should be subject to business benefit, and the current condition does not permit the implementation of CSR), some researchers indicate the possibility that CSR is embedded into HRM in the environment of financial crisis. For example, In the study by Jones et al (2000), good image and reputation, established through CSR actions and other initiatives, can protect corporations from the decline of market in the chaotic economic environment; the stock price of firms with good image fall less than those without good reputation. Schnietz and Epstein (2005) held a similar view. Therefore, CSR is conducive to financial performance even in such tough circumstance. Furthermore, some researchers consider that it is costly to embed CSR principles into HRM practices. For instance, many employers are unwilling to notify downsizing plans in advance, which is a responsible HRM practice, on the ground that the productivity will decrease, employee will lose morale and turnover increase, all of which is costly (Leana and Feldman, 1992, cited in Forde et al, 2009). On the contrary, Hopkins and Hopkins (1999, cited in Forde et al, 2009) suggested that advance notification virtually minimize the costs, because it alleviates the pressure of post-layoff through retraining employees and offering counseling. It implies that some actions comprising CSR principles can be helpful to cost-saving. In current climate of global financial crisis, redundancy and restructuring is inevitable. However, it does not mean that the link between HRM and CSR is unrealistic. Socially responsible restructuring is identified, which embed CSR principles into restructuring. It was defined as the use of one or more approaches to consciously take into account the interest of all the organizations stakeholders- managers, owners/shareholders, workers, as well as the large community (International Labour Organization, 2002, cited in Forde et al, 2009). Since restructuring and redundancies are also parts of HRM functions (Redman and Wilkinson, 2001), socially responsible restructuring can be regarded as special integration of HRM and CSR in special economic circumstance. Forde et al (2009) proposed that- from the perspective of business case- socially responsible restructuring are implemented because it can be beneficial to the competitiveness of company. However, Heller (2009 cited in Forde et al, 2009) argued that with the intensity of global financial crisis and increases of redundancy, fewer corporations take up socially responsible restructuring. In fact, Legislation and labor market policies are enacted and implemented to advance companies to adopt socially responsible restructuring measures. For example, Trade Adjustment Assistance Act is used to promote social accountability when redundancy and layoff increase (Office of the US Trade Representative, 2009, cited in Forde et al, 2009). Therefore, with the support of legislation and government policies, the link between HRM and CSR is realistic even if it is faced with deepening economic crisis. Viljanen and Lahteenmaki (2009) analyzed different HR reactions to global financial crisis from two HRM philosophies: hard and soft. Hard HRM is in pursuit of maximal short-term saving and obtain cost efficiency by direct personnel cuts. On the contrary, soft HRM seek for the maintenance of business in the long run. The HR actions according to this kind of approach include dismiss employees temporarily, implementing pension plans as well as offering support to staff in the face of redundancy (such as outplacement services and retraining). Legge (2005 cited in Forde et al, 2009) concluded that in order to seek for profits, companies are forced to take hard HRM actions, such as direct personnel cuts. Moreover, collapsed market also compels employers to strive for cost-saving by directly cutting headcounts of employees. It seems that HRM actions easily turn hard in the circumstance of global financial crisis. It is indeed a challenging for company not only to strive for survival in tough environment and make the balance of short and long term profits, but also to maintain its good reputation and performance reliable employer. Although these activities appear to be hard in common situation, when they are located in the climate of economic crisis, HRM seems not to be hard. It is possible to integrate CSR with HRM during global financial crisis. (Forde et al, 2009) It is impossible that companies can meet requirements of all stakeholders (including shareholders and employees). In the tough economic environment, what firm can do is to strive for minimizing the loss of benefits of all stakeholders and avoid direct personnel cut (hard HRM). Therefore, CSR can play a potential role in restructuring, on the ground that socially responsible restructuring minimize negative influence of layoffs and redundancy. whilst at present we do not have a viable CSR tool for the successful anticipation and management of corporate change, there are a range of possibilities for connecting restructuring to CSR (Forde et al, 2009). It affirms the viability of the link between HRM and CSR. Indeed, considering that in the environment of financial crisis CSR is beneficial to financial performance, that some actions comprising CSR principles can minimize the costs and that socially responsible restructuring are promoted by legislation and government policies, it is realistic and feasible to integrate HRM with CSR in current economic environment. Three case studies will be illustrated to prove that such link is possible in the face of tough economic environment. In the case study of steel industry in the UK (Corus and ASW), previous to the declaration of layoffs, both Corus and ASW offer high level of training which enhances the employability of employees and help them adapt to changing environment. In addition, ASW held a formal meeting to notify employees in advance that company will lay off staff because of unstable financial situation. During the period of announcement of layoffs, Corus did not put layoff planes into action immediately. Instead, it offered 90-day consultation time. Moreover, in the period of implementation of layoffs, companies establish equitable criteria to choose employees who should be laid off. At Corus plants, workers who were voluntary to leave were hunted prior to the adoption of compulsory redundancy; early retirement schemes were implemented, namely employees, in the age of fifty and above, can retire early with sufficient pension. Furthermore, Corus offer criteria for the selection of redeployment. In addition , many support activities were administered, such as offering information about job opportunities and career advice, providing retraining programme as well as offering counseling. Deutsche Bank also did well in combining CSR with HRM practices in the climate of restructuring. Many HRM actions were devised to help staff whom the bank laid off to find another job. Vocational retraining and job coaching (e.g. advice for job applications) were offered. Staff were redeployed by internal temporary work agency. Both internal (e.g. HR advisers) and external counseling were provided. In addition, the bank also offer part-time working and have outplacement activities (Syed and Kramar, 2008). Another case is Hotel Villa Magna-Park Hyatt. In 2007, the hotel implement redecoration programme which lasted for 14 months rather than lay off employees. The company showed that it truly care for staff by providing chances for employees to participate in all activities (Bohdanowicz and Zientara, 2008). In a sense, the integration of HRM and CSR is realistic by insert CSR principles into redundancy and restructuring, even though it is different from the responsible HRM practices in normal circumstance (such as job security and work-life balance). Part Four: conclusion In this research, the author demonstrated that HRM should be linked to CSR. It was explained with references to academic debates from four aspects. Firstly, such link is feasible on the ground of reality that responsible HRM actions are actually adopted by many companies. Secondly, according to stakeholder theory, corporations should strive for meeting the requirement of all stakeholders (including shareholders and employees). CSR actions can meet the psychological needs of employees. Next, the integration of HRM and CSR can bring about potential profits by improving job satisfaction, enhancing organizational commitment, advancing employees performance and decreasing the turnover. Finally, CSR is conducive to establishment of good reputation of companies, thereby help employers recruit and retain employees. In addition, socially responsible restructuring is regarded as the special links between HRM and CSR in such tough economic climate. The researcher also proposed that such link is still realistic in the current climate of restructuring and redundancies on the ground that it helps companies set up better reputation, which can alleviate the economic loss of firms in collapsed market, that it can be beneficial to cost-saving in the face of redundancy and that it is supported by legislation and government policies. Although restructuring and redundancy are considered as hard HRM actions, such link seems to be soft in current tough climate.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Effects of Globalization on Social Work Practices Essay -- human t

Globalisation is a broad term that is often defined in economic factors alone. The Dictionary at describes globalisation as â€Å"the process of enabling financial markets to operate internationally, largely as a result of deregulation and improved communication.† Also due to deregulation on the financial market, multi-national companies are free to trade and move their businesses to areas where a higher return or profit can be achieved. New technology also enables companies to relocate to areas where labour costs are lower, for instance movement of call centre jobs from the UK to India. Lyons (2006) suggests that globalisation creates push and pull factors. Pull factors may include the recruitment drive of highly skilled migrants to developed countries, in return for better pay and working conditions. Push factors may force individuals to migrate due to poor living and working conditions in their native country. Political factors which infringe human rights and fear of persecution may cause individuals to flee also. Globalisation has increased modern technology all over the world enabling more people, such as globally separated families, to maintain contact. Increased media coverage also draws the attention of the world to human rights violation which can lead to an improvement in human rights. This is not a reflection of all marginalised groups. In Australia, the detention of unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC) contravenes the United Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), however the media are prohibited to enter detention centres and report on this issue (Cemlyn and Briskman, 2003). Globalisation often affects the structurally oppressed within society, including women and m... ... Home Office (2007) Glossary- National Refugee Integration. Accessed on 6th November 2010. The Scottish Government (2003) Asylum Seekers in Scotland. Accessed on 9th November 2010. The Scottish Government (2007) Refugees and asylum seekers. Accessed on 5th November 2010. The Scottish Government (2003) Refugee Integration Forum: action plan. Accessed on 10th November 2010. The United Nations Refugee Agency (2010) Definitions and Obligations. Accessed on 9th November 2010. United Convention of Human Rights (1951) United Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton :: Ethan Frome Essays

Ethan Frome Ethan Frome, a novel by Edith Wharton, is set in the bleak Massachusetts town of Starkfield. Ethan Frome struggles to make a living as a farmer while his wife, Zeena, complains about her imaginary ailments. When Zeena’s cousin, Mattie, comes to live with the couple, Ethan and Mattie develop a growing friendship. This â€Å"friendship† arouses Zeena’s jealousy and so she evicts Mattie from the house. Ethan becomes furious as he realizes he has fallen in love with Mattie. As they are about to part, in despair, they attempt to end heir lives. Instead they are both left crippled and their original roles have changed for life. Caring for both, Ethan & Mattie and presiding over their wrecked lives, is Zeena. Edith Wharton emphasis her work with her individual style and technique. Wharton is very precise in her choice of words and uses situation irony to wrap the reader. Wharton structures the novel in a very easy to follow manner: by using chapters, cause & effect, relationships, and a great turning point. He setting & geography stay basic throughout the novel as it is winter is Starkfield. Individual happiness is a key element in the novel, while Ethan traps himself in the love he has achieved towards Mattie. Edith Wharton takes her novel beyond. Her extensive choice of words and variety of vocabulary make the novel more interesting. â€Å"...her Pierce relations to foist on him the cost of a servant; and for the moment wrath predominated.† (Wharton III). Wharton’s extensive vocabulary gives the reader a sense of intelligence from the narrator as well as a sense of a close to accurate imagination of Ethan Frome’s life. Wharton develops detailed emotions and detailed descriptions of Ethan which gives a strong impact to the reader. â€Å"He was the most striking figure in Starkfield, it was not so much his great height that marked him, it was the careless powerful look he had, in spite of a lameness checking each step like the jerk of a chain, there was som ething bleak and unapproachable in his face, and he was so stiffened and grizzled...† (Wharton IIII) Wharton is very precise and to the point. Technique is a key element in the novel, as Wharton started off in first person describing her interests in Ethan Frome. While in first person Wharton shows curiosity along with interest.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Another Civil War :: essays research papers

Socioeconomic reasons for the causes and outcome of the Civil War Analyzing the causes and the eventual outcome of the American Civil War can be a difficult task when you look at all the issues at once. The fields of the political, economic and sociological differences between the Union and the Confederacy are were we find the bulk of the answers as why the two regions of the United States separated. When trying to discuss the Civil War we must first explain why the Confederate states seceded and just as importantly, how they were defeated. When trying to find the causes and the outcomes of the Civil War, I've chosen to bypass the political reasons and would rather discuss the areas of economic and sociological conflict. It is hard to discuss one of these aspects without showing how closely it is tied into the other. Economy is the child of sociological conditions and in turn sociological conditions predict an areas economic success and potential. Because of this strong interrelationship between the two, the word "socioeconomic" is best suited to describe this important area of conflict between the North and the South. Almost a question of civilization versus barbarism the war between the North and the South showed America who held more power and whose way would lead us into a future for all Americans. The North and South were divided along an invisible economic line. States in the North were more industrialized than states in the South. In the South, cotton and tobacco provided the economy. These plantation crops created an economic situation based entirely upon agriculture. This was in stark contrast too the heavily industrialized Northern cities in America. Slave labor provided the workforce on the Southern plantations and along with crops were the backbone of Southern economic power. Slave labor, which turned the wheels on the vast plantations growing tobacco and cotton, created an entirely different socioeconomic climate then the one found in the North. The inherent conflict between the progressive, industrialized, urbane North and the plantation lifestyle, made possible by cotton, tobacco and slave labor, ultimately revealed a nation sharply divided along socioeconomic lines. The Civil War or "the war between the states", was the inevitable outcome of a developing nation uncertain as to whether it should remain progressive and industrialized or genteel and slowmoving. Unquestionably, the tobacco economy of the South as well as its cotton products were of vast importance to the entire nation. Still, the social structure of plantation life with its legacy and dependency upon slave labor, would not be tolerated by Northern states for much longer. A continued cry for emancipation and abolition by president Lincoln and

Thursday, July 18, 2019

History Boys (random quotes and notes) Essay

Quotes Headmaster: Why are you dressed as a milk man? – Shows lack of understanding for the boys who are in a working class Headmaster: There Clever but they lack Crass. Ms. Lintot They know there stuff. But they Lack Flare. Hector: All Knowledge is useful even if it doesnt serve the slightest need Hector: Its the hot Ticket – Happyness Headmaster: I thought of going. But this was in the 50s. Change was in the air. I was a Geographer. I went to†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Headmaster: Odity- Rudge. Posner: I’ll Go sir – Hector: Nevermind. Irwin: Has any one been to Rome, Venince.  So why bother Irwin: I dont know, I wold go to newcastle, save the money and be happy. Irwin: Whats truth got to do with it. Ms. Lintot: Cunt Strunct, Compound adjective. Hector: At least im doing better than felix. Posner: Although he laughs the laughs on me. Rudge: What fun must you all have Dakin: Lititure is about loosers. Gobits:  Pass the parcel thats all sometimes you can do. Take it feel. Not for me not for you. Headmaster:This Is no time for poetry Headmaster: Are you going to tell your wife. Posner is the only one who attends his lesson after four.  Posner is the only one who goes up to mr hector when he is crying. Dakin: Is that the subjunctive or the It will pass Who says I want it to pass Why dont you all just tell the truth. Ms. Lintot â€Å"History is a commetary on the various and continuing incapabilities of men† Rudge: Its just one fucking thing after another. If they like me and they take me then theyll take me because im dull and ordinary like everybody else. Irwin: Dont you ever want to go back? Im not clever enough, im not anything enough really. Hector: What I didnt want was to turn out boys who would claim In later life to have a deep love of literature. Has a boy ever made you unhappy? They used to do. See it as an Inoculation, Rather. Briefly painful, but providing immunity for however long it takes. Given the occasional Booster, Another Face, another reminder of the pain, It can last you half a life time. Love. Who could love me? Do they know? They know everthing? Dont touch him. He†ll think your a full. Dakin: How come theres such a difference between the way you teach and the way you live? Dakin: Hectors a Joke- Irwin: No, He isn;t, you see? Dakin, whats the difference between Mr. Hector touching us up on the bike, and your feeling up fiona. Posmer: Im not happy, but im not unhappy about it. Skrips: No. Love Apart, It is the only education worth having. I’d been on playground duty, so I saw him on what must have been his first morning†¦ Here, Scripps takes on the role of a narrator IRWIN: He was a good man but I do not think there is time for his kind of teaching anymore. SCRIPPS: No. Love apart it is the only kind of education worth having. Timms seems to suddenly step outside of time and say: The hitting never hurt. It was a joke. None of us cared. We lapped it up. This sudden switch into the past tense comes as a surprise, and may prompt the audience to wonder whether Timms is addressing them directly, from some future time in which he is looking back at the events being played out. The intrusion of future knowledge into the linear narrative of the play continues to cast a shadow over events, and becomes darker as the story progresses. At the start of Act 2 for example, we see another flash-forward, this time by ‘about five years’. Irwin is in his wheelchair once more, which tells us that his accident will be soon, and not in the more distant future as we may have first thought, increasing the sense of urgency and inevitability. In this future time, Irwin meets one of the students, identified only, to begin with, as ‘Man’. This label also expresses the passing of time through its contrast to ‘boy’, the term used in the title of the play and throughout to describe the students. This ‘Man’ is Posner,  perhaps the most fragile of the boys, who is now in therapy and desperately clinging to his past. He says of university: All the effort went into getting there and then I had nothing left. While Irwin’s fate is foreshadowed throughout, the fate of Hector comes as a tragic surprise. It is important to consider why it is Mrs Lintott who takes this role of retrospective narrator. Like Scripps, she has been an outsider, describing her separation from the male environment of the play in her metaphor: They kick their particular stone along the street and I watch. given them a deeper perception of time and its patterns. The total timescale of events described within The History Boys can therefore be seen to encompass about twenty years, but Bennett incorporates a much wider period by showing the historical and literary influences acting upon the characters. The classroom setting allows Bennett to use intertextuality freely to achieve this. This technique involves the reference of other, previously written texts within the play. Thomas Hardy’s ‘Drummer Hodge’, for example, is used to symbolise the connection between Hector and Posner: Posner: How old was he?†¨Hector: If he was a drummer, he would be a young soldier, younger than you probably.†¨Posner: No. Hardy.†¨Hector: Oh, how old was Hardy? When he wrote this, about sixty. My age, I suppose This prompts a moving discussion about loneliness and isolation. Hector can relate to the loneliness of the poem, being around the same age as Hardy was when he wrote it, and feeling a sense of unfulfilled ambition, of a life not lived. For Posner, a teenager dealing with his homosexuality in a school full of heterosexual boys, the loneliness of Drummer Hodge, a boy not much older than himself, is deeply affecting. Are seeing a play from the early 21st century, set in the 1980s, using a poem from the 1960s describing 1914. messages of the play: that we can learn from times beyond our own lives through the literature left scattered through the decades and centuries, in what Hector describes as a game of ‘pass it on’. Rudge’s ironic rendition of  Ã¢â‚¬ËœIt’s a Sin’ by the Pet Shop Boys (1987) also comments on the inevitable presence and role of sexuality and ‘sin’ in education. The History Boys therefore moves far beyond the initially restrictive time and space in which it is set to bind together influences from across the 20th century and before. This goes some way to explain the title itself; the boys, through their teachers and education, are moving into their future with history having become a fundamental part of their characters, personalities and lives. As the fateful accident is set in motion, Scripps notes:†¨And here, history rattled over the points†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¨To continue this train metaphor, Alan Bennett has not only presented the interchange station of the boys’ transition from school to university, but the long lines of railway that stretch backwards and forwards beyond it. my education at school was confined to what I needed to pass exams. Women: The representation of women is seen through the very few female characters in the play. -Bennett presents marriage as a confinement of social experience vs being central to a happy ending. -Both Hectors unexpected wife and the Mrs. Headmaster are absent from stage. -Glimpses of this marrige are represented as unhappy. -Both wifes help out at the charity shop -Hector clames that his wife would not be intrested in his fiddling of boys on the pillion – is Dorothy’s surmise that Mrs Hector had ‘sort of known all along’ about her husband and that ‘A husband in a low light, that’s what they want, these supposedly unsuspecting wives, the man’s lukewarm attentions, just what they married them for’. So, far from submissive, Hector’s wife has, arguably, some control in her marriage. Fionas Relationship with Dakin – Bennet explores the sexual stereyotype that women are used as objects rather – This is epitomized by Dakin’s statement that â€Å"I’m hoping one of the times might be on the study floor†¦ it’s like the Headmaster says one should have targets† – Dakin accentuates the relationship between sex and education as he notes the importance of measurable targets in pursuing Fiona. – comic upheaval of youth dominating age which again emphasises Fiona’s role in heightening male dominance. -Dakin compares sexual advances with Fiona and the advances of the British soldiers in the war. Fiona is depicted as his ‘Western Front’, a territory to be taken, and, more alarming, the enemy, the ‘Hun’; her body is ‘ground’ to be -depicts Fiona’s subservience and reaffirms her character as elevating male sexual accomplishment -degrades women’s role in society to be solely focused around pleasing men. Mrs.Lintott – She controversially comments on history as being â€Å"a commentary on the various and continuing incapabilities of men† – condemns the arrogant Dakin as ‘cunt-struck’. – She harnesses the derogatory male language of female private parts to derogate men, calling the Headmaster ‘twat’ -‘to go further down the same proscribed path, a condescending cunt’ – Bennett uses the character of Mrs Lintott to display the Headmaster’s idiocy in the first scene in which she appears on stage. He believes the boys need to â€Å"Think charm. Think Polish†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . However, Dorothy’s ironic response compares his idea of education to a â€Å"sprig of parsley† ,and subversively the Headmaster’s appearance on stage becomes the centre of the audience’s mockery. – however, Dorothy is, like Scripps, given a role as omniscient and perspicacious onlooker and observer of events over time – she satirically comments on society, stating they are â€Å"Pillars of a community that no longer has much use for pillars†. – further criticise â€Å"masculine ineptitude† as she demonstrates the unfulfilled outcome of the boys’ future as a result of the â€Å"masculine† approach to teaching. The comment that Dakin â€Å"like[s] money†,ironically denotes the value of an education focused solely on achieving ‘targets’. -self-absorbed behaviour of the male characters -However, Bennett excludes Mrs Lintott from the educational debate and presents her without any viewpoint on it -male dominant society that men are always in positions of influence and for a man to be inferior to a woman is inconceivable. – The headmaster is concerned with superficial ‘targets’,Hector believesâ€Å"all knowledge is precious†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and Irwin is chiefly concerned with originality and practical uses of it. Who are the History Boys? †¢ Dakin – The Stud †¢ Scripps – The Conscience †¢ Posner – The Lover/Poet †¢ Rudge – The Working Lad †¢ Akhtar – The Ethnic Minority †¢ Crowther – The Lip †¢ Timms – The Class Clown †¢ Lockwood – The Soldier Representations of Class †¢ Headmaster’s (BA Hull) snobbery: †¢ â€Å"They’re clever but they’re crass†¦Culture they can get from Hector, History they can get from you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  †¢ â€Å"They need polish. Edge†¦I want to see us up there!† Representations of Teaching Styles †¢ Mr Hector (General Studies): â€Å"Life Lessons† †¢ Mrs Dorothy Lintott (History): â€Å"Subject teaching† †¢ Mr Irwin (Oxbridge): â€Å"Exam boosters† †¢ The Head Master: â€Å"Results† â€Å"All knowledge is precious, whether or not it serves the slightest human use† †¢ AE Houseman †¢ â€Å"We won’t be examined on that, Sir†¦happiness† †¢ Question: What is education for? Teaching Style: Irwin †¢ Modern classroom of glass and plastic, bare walls, functional †¢ â€Å"I’d go to Newcastle and be happy† Fox, UK 15. Intertextuality as Commentary †¢ Noel Coward’s Brief Encounter: â€Å"Thank you for coming back to me† †¢ Drummer Hodge: Thomas Hardy â€Å"A saddish life. Though not unappreciated†¦Unkissed. Unrejoicing. Unconfessed. Unembraced† Representation of Gender †¢ â€Å"History’s a commentary on†¦ the continuing incapabilities of men†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Lintott) †¢ â€Å"Five centuries of masculine ineptitude† cf â€Å"The utter randomness of things† (Lintott) †¢ Question: How are the masculine and feminine represented in The History Boys 18. Schools as sexual sites – Fisher et al †¢ Sites of sexual opportunity, tension and competition †¢ Reinforced by popular culture, peer support †¢ Dominance of heteronormativity †¢ Male environments – homoeroticism of The History Boys 19. Representation of Sexuality 1 †¢ Representation of Male Adult Sexuality: †¢ â€Å"The transmission of knowledge is itself an erotic act† (Hector) †¢ â€Å"This is a school and it isn’t normal† (The Headmaster) †¢ â€Å"A grope is a grope† (Lintott) 20. Representation of Sexuality 2 †¢ Representation of Male Adolescent Awakening: †¢ Dakin’s ‘conquest’ †¢ Scripps’ faith †¢ Posner’s ‘in-love’ 21. Representation of Sexuality 3 †¢ Dakin’s proposition of Irwin †¢ Irwin’s response †¢ Question: What do you think of the representation of male (homo)sexuality in The History Boys? 22. Learning Styles †¢ â€Å"Mr. Hector’s stuff’s not meant for the exams. It’s to make us more rounded human beings† (Timms) †¢ â€Å"We’ve got the most important exam in our lives†¦We’re just sat here reading literature†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Lockwood) †¢ â€Å"Hector produces results but unpredictable and unquantiï ¬ able†¦There’s inspiration, certainly, but how do I quantify that?† (The Headmaster) †¢ â€Å"Lying works† (Dakin to Irwin) †¢ â€Å"He was a good man. But I don’t think there’s time for his kind of teaching anymore† (Irwin on Hector) †¢ â€Å"One of the hardest things for boys to learn is that a teacher is human. One of the hardest things for a teacher to learn is not to try and tell them† (Lintott) Bennetts presentation of marriage Education: Intetextuallity Analysis of women: shovinism

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Gender Inequality Essay

sexual activityuality bay window be defined as the soci twoy constructed roles and duties participation constructs, assigns and expects of manlys and females on the basis of their biological and bodily characteristics. Gender is learnt, non permanent and differs from atomic tote up 53 community to an separate. Gender roles and responsibilities ar embed in all spheres of society be it economic, social, governmental or religious. Gender roles argon affected by age, social class, readiness, ethnicity and race. The sex roles help society to determine man occasion and wowork force access to rights, resources and opportunities. Gender in this berth is non just a concept, n constantlytheless ab step up perceptions and understanding concerning the affiliation in the midst of males and females in society and how sexual urge influences their attitudes, bearing and responsibilities. Gender discrepancy refers to unequal intervention of work force and wo workforce that be against the legal and integral require manpowert such(prenominal) as the humanity rights provisions as enshrined in the worldwide Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 & The Convention on the Eradication of all forms of unlikeness against females (1979). al or so countries have, however, fallen short of entitling human rights and independences to everyone in society regardless of their sex (Michael 12). Gender discrepancy varies from armed countries to developing countries. too considering that the world is comprised of different tribes and races that have clear-cut values and beliefs, sexuality discrepancy bequeath vary with the equivalent intensity. Such inequalities accept the professional obstacles that wo workforce encounter in their subjectplaces. It is obvious that womens lack of leadership positions be fetch such roles argon considered to be meant for men. Those who are mothers whitethorn be penalized or discriminated for taking fourth dimension off to a t flow to their children. The contr oversial core concerning sexuality inequality is the convey to have intercourse the unequal power relations between men and women in society and to work for greater sex equality and the forward motion of women. It does not only mean the appellative of specific areas that are important for womens advancements, simply as well attempts to introduce a dimension of sexuality in all activities. It also performer there is quotation of how important it is to work with both men and women to change the existing sexual urge relations. consort to the United States Census data, there is a gender wage gaolbreak in which women earn 77 cents for each vaulting horse earned by a man.The gap is a matter of concern that has prompted chair Obama to announce the Paycheck fairness make believe on Equal Pay Day. However, consort to the one of the lead economist the statistics tramp the gender wage gap are flawed. The flawed statistics have acted hindra nce and distracter to the legislator and refer public from finding the solutions that would solve the veritable problem-the gender ancestrys gap. The Census data that give-up the ghost the 77 cents on dollar equivalence is based on aggregate earning of men and women thus ignoring job choice, raising, experience, industry, and other factors that move over to a persons wage. If a comparison is made between men and women with the same background such as education and experience, same employer, among other the gender gap disappears. The reasons why the gender job gap exists is the due to low build of female occupying towering executive director levels and manager positions. men also are earning high than women despite creation in the same senior-level jobs. The choice of work is a study that determine potential earnings. Men tend to take relatively high-paying jobs in design and IT, while women take low-paying jobs like education and human resources.The gender gap persis ts because men and women choose to pursue different charges (Autor et al, 2008). The gender job gap can be clam upd, if women are encouraged to pursue high-paying career in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering. Legislation should be formulate to bridge the gap in men and women career choice. An enabling environment should shape in the workplace where women can be empowered and helped to rise to top executive positions. Comparing the job to job is not tenable solution in addressing the gender wage gap more need to be done to bring women earning close to that of men (Juhn et al, 2014). Gender inequality also involves feticide and infanticide. For instance, in India and China, a male child is more appreciated than a female child. Parents have to find out the sex of the handle they are carrying so as to decide whether to terminate the motherhood or kill the child aft(prenominal) its birth (Kristoff, 69). One of my family members in China, my first cousin who has a b ias that boys better than girls. I was very angry that he convince his wife went to abortion because his wife enceinte with a girl when I knew he did that. He exempted that China has the birth run across policy and he just require to a boy to continue his family name. In the legal area at China, it wasnt involve in crime for what he did.However, in the ethical area, he deprive his wifes horizon and thebaby who didnt has chance come to the world. I think he against the humanity and nature. on that point are also a number of disposals in society that recreate primaeval roles in the construction of gender. These organizations need to be gender sensitive so as to ensure they continue in the compulsory construction of gender equality. Such organizations allow in the family, the most imperative socializing proxy, school, media and religion. or so(prenominal) theoretical perspectives exist that tend to explain the origin of gender inequalities. Radical feminists manage that the gender inequalities arise from the biological differences among individuals that micturate a form of social organization that equip men and women with the different roles they play in society. For example, women are handicapped by their biology in terms of pregnancy, vaginal birth and breastfeeding that makes them dependent on men. This dependence creates an unequal power relationships and power psychology. They also manage that, in every society, a high value is placed on assimilation rather than nature. Through culture, supernatural forces can be sought in crop to achieve success, therefore it is considered a means by which humanity governs and regulates nature.Women are seen contiguous to nature than men because of their social roles as mothers and reproduction (Hekman 52). Men, on the other hand, introduce in activities such as warfare, administration that involve culture. This makes them better to women. From a Marxist perspective, gender inequality arose during t he earlier stages of suppuration when there was ownership of private property. Men gained control over the women and property hence the patriarchal system of family where property was passed knock off through the males line. Marxists thought this would change with the capitalist system but women still continue to be disfavor compared to men. On the contrary, liberal feminists approached gender inequality in a more luxurious centering. They argued that nobody benefits from the existing gender inequalities since both men and women are harmed by inequalities. go women do not get opportunities to develop their talents and become successful and skilled members, men are also denied the opportunity of having a close relationship with their children. Gender inequality is caused by the general credence that males are superior to females because of this idea, women have spent some significant amount of years pathetic under their counterparts.Males also tend to be more emphatic and abso lute because of their innate hormones or intuitiveintellect. Sexual discrimination is also another major cause of gender inequality where women are viewed by men as just sex objects rather than real human beings with standards and morals. different general contributing factors of gender inequality include unequal power relations, assumptions some male and female behavior, insufficient laws against gender inequality, cultural, traditional and religious practices. I became certified of this problem through the campaigns that the government and other Non-Governmental Organizations have held. Their efforts are directed towards ensuring that gender inequality is minimized all over the world. Awareness is being created among women where they get to be educated on their rights and freedoms (Hurst, 96). The women are being empowered through sponsoring women projects as a way of generating income that makes them less dependable on women. The media is also playing a full of life role on the sensitization of ways of minimizing gender inequality in the societies.higher(prenominal) education in universities and colleges also promotes women verify and all levels of society. The government is doing everything in its power to increase the productivity of women by initiating income generating projects. However, they do not take into account that women are already overburdened with work, they do not control family budgets and many of them have difficulties of freedom and movement. It is evident that the informal sector has special employment opportunities and these projects allow not be taken with the seriousness it deserves despite having the ability to empower the women. It is also easy to ride individuals or groups for a specific oddment such as a political action or assisting members who are in need. In this case curbing, the menace of gender inequality in the society will be of great help. This is because it has charged most nations more harm than good. Most the great unwashed have depicted that certain duties and tasks are to be performed by certain persons making gender imbalance. Heavy duties are normally dedicated to men while the unbiased ones are left to the females creating a abundant difference in genders. Until all these issues are addressed there is no way that the nation and the globe will ever achieve gender balance.Work citedMichael G. Peletz, Gender, gender and Body Politics in new-fashioned Asia. Ann Arbor, MI Association for Asian studies, 2011. Kristoff, Nicholas D. (August 23, 2009). The Womens Crusade. New York Times. RetrievedFebruary 16, 2011. Burstein, Paul. Equal Employment prospect Labor Market Discrimination and earthly concern Policy. Edison, NJ Aldine Transaction, 1994. Hekman, David R. Aquino, Karl Owens, Brad P. Mitchell, Terence R. (2009) An Examination of How racial and Gender Biases Influence Customer Satisfaction. Autor, D. H., Katz, L. F., & Kearney, M. S. (2013). Trends in US wage inequality rewrit e the revisionists. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 90(2), 300-323. Juhn, C., Ujhelyi, G., & Villegas-Sanchez, C. (2014). Men, women, and machines how trade impacts gender inequality. Journal of Development Economics, 106, 179-193.